Research Article

Korean Journal of Plant Resources. 1 December 2021. 633-660
https://doi.org/10.7732/kjpr.2021.34.6.633

ABSTRACT


MAIN

  • Usefulness

  • Materials and Methods

  • Results

  •   Endemic species of Mt. Munsusan

  •   Rare species of Mt. Munsusan

  •   Floristic regional indicator plants of Mt. Munsusan

  •   Naturalized species of Mt. Munsusan

  •   Useful resource species of Mt. Munsusan

  • Discussion

Introduction

Mt. Munsusan (1,205 m) is surrounded by mountains over 1,200 m - Mt. Seondal, Mt. Okseok, Mt. Guryong, Mt. Gakhwa - to the north and east of its summit, and mostly relatively low mountains below 700 m to its west and south with villages at their foot. It is placed at the midpoint between Mt. Taebaek and Mt. Sobaek regions when Baekdudaegan of South Korea is broken down into five regions. This mountain is facing Mt. Okseok with Jusilryeong as its boundary on the section leading to Mt. Sobaek - Mt. Galgot - Mt. Seondal - Bakdalyeong- Mt. Okseok (Okdolbong) - Doraegijae - Mt. Guryong - Mt. Taebaek located between the sections 5 and 6 presented in the Baekdudaegan Ecology Map (https://www.forest.go.kr/).

Floristic-geographically speaking, it belongs to the Korean region of the Sino-Japanese region and warm-temperate forest zone, and it falls under the cool temperate forest central zone among the eight zones divided according to the flora zone of Korea (Lee and Yim, 1978). According to the new flora structure in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula suggested by the Korean Forest (VI) Flora Region and Vegetation Climate of Korea (Korea National Arboretum, 2020), it is a warm temperate flora zone (Zone III) and Korean forests classified according to the vegetation climate area is part of deciduous broad-leaved forests (WI 45-85) in temperate northern vegetation climate.

Its climate displays a continental climate with large annual temperature variances owing to its geographical location of being in the mountainous inland of Gangwon Province. Its average annual temperature for the last five years (2016 - 2020) is 10.6℃ (10.3 ~ 11℃), with the highest temperature of 37.8℃ in 2018 and the lowest one of -21.7℃ confirmed in 2018. Its mean maximum temperature is 18.1℃, coupled with the average minimum temperature of 3.9℃, and its precipitation is 1,086.78 ㎜ (795.3 ~ 1297.3 ㎜) (Korea Meteorological Administration, 2020).

The geological map of the Korean Peninsula indicates most of the geology in this area is composed of Gyeonggi metamorphic rock complex, Mt. Sobaek metamorphic complex, Mt. Jiri metamorphic rock complex, and foliated granite, which are the rocks formed in the Archaeon-Proterozoic eon and the Mesozoic era. From the angle of the tectonic zone of the Korean Peninsula, it spans over the Yeongnam Massif and Mt. Taebaek Basin, and the present geological features were witnessed in the Yeongnam Massif during the Paleoproterozoic time of the Precambrian Period and in Mt. Taebaek Basin during the Ordovician-Cambrian Period (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 2016). Its soil is brown forest one, and its types are lithosols and red-yellow soil. Brown forest soil represents the forest soil of Korea, and humus decomposed from the organic matter on its topmost layer accumulates nearby the topsoil layer, rendering it with dark black color. For subsoil layer, its soil color gets brighter with the increase in mineral content. Soil in this mountain is mainly made up of loam and the average soil depth is 50 - 660 ㎝ (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 2016).

Most of the flora studies in this region are relevant to the formation of the Baekdudaegan National Arboretum. Consequently, there have been many researches that reported the area where this arboretum was built - Mt. Munsusan, Mt. Okseok, and Mt. Guryong - in an integrated fashion, rather than an intensive survey on Mt. Munsusan (Byeon et al., 2016; Chung et al., 2015; Kim and Yun, 2009; You et al., 2009). Accordingly, reported theses and report results so far demonstrate that no intensive investigation has been carried out on Mt. Munsusan, leading us to reach a decision to conduct a survey according to various routes by citing previous research data as it is. So we tried to come up with a list based on evidence samples by making a sample collection centering on field investigations. Any absence of sample during the process was supplemented through image data. The intention of our endeavor is to report on the vascular plants distributed in Mt. Munsusan, identify taxa requiring conservation, and use it as the basis data for the efficient management of Baekdudaegan plants going forward.

Materials and Methods

This undertaking took place through fifteen field surveys of Mt. Munsusan ranging over two years (2019 and 2020). The said mountain is in the western part of Bonghwa County, North Gyeongsang Province at 36°48' ~ 37°03' in north latitude and 128°41' ~ 128°49' in east longitude, and it is part of Mullya-myeon, Chunyang-myeon, and Bongseong-myeon. Our survey was conducted in several routes to encompass various habitats such as slopes, ridges, valleys, and forest roads of Mt. Munsusan (Table 1, Fig. 1).

Table 1.

The dates and routes of Mt. Munsusan

No. Date Survey routes
1 May. 2019 Jusil-ryeong → Forest road → Jusil-ryeong
2. Geosil → Forest road → BaekdudaeganNational Arboretum
2 Jun. 2019 1. Chukseosa Temple → Top of Mt. Munsusan → Dune water springs
2. Dune water springs → Top of Mt. Munsusan → Jusil-ryeong
3 Jul. 2019 1. Geosil → Forest road → BaekdudaeganNational Arboretum
2. Chukseosa Temple → Top of Mt. Munsusan → Chukseosa Temple
4 Sep. 2019 Chukseosa Temple → Yebae-ryeong → Jusil-ryeong
2. Geosil → Forest road → BaekdudaeganNational Arboretum
5 Oct. 2019 1. Dune water springs → Yebae-ryeong → Chukseosa Temple
2. Jusil-ryeong → Forest road → BaekdudaeganNational Arboretum
6 Apr. 2020 Chukseosa Temple → Yebae-ryeong → Jusil-ryeong
7 Sep. 2020 1. Chukseosa Temple → Top of Mt. Munsusan → Chukseosa Temple
2. Jusil-ryeong → Forest road → Jusil-ryeong
8 Oct. 2020 Dune water springs → Top of Mt. Munsusan → Chukseosa Temple
2. Geosil → Forest road → BaekdudaeganNational Arboretum

/media/sites/kjpr/2021-034-06/N0820340613/images/kjpr_34_06_13_F1.jpg
Fig. 1.

The location of investigated area and survey routes in Mt. Munsusan.

All species verified from our investigation of various routes were collated or photographed. Such collected plants were then dried and made into specimens of plant pressing and kept in the KBA (Herbarium of the Baekdudaegan National Arboretum). For exact identification, this job was performed using the illustrated books of Cho et al. (2016), Korea National Arboretum (2004, 2019), Lee (1996, 2003, 2006), Lee and Lee (2015), Park (2009), Yoo (2013) and so on. Their scientific and common names followed those in the National Standard Plant List (http://www.nature.go.kr/) published by the Korea National Arboretum. The vascular plants that have completed identification are based on Engler's vascular plant taxonomy (Melchior, 1964) for classification and placement. Especially, major plants of this mountain were prepared with reference to Korean endemic species (Chung et al., 2017), rare species (Korea National Arboretum, 2008), floristic specific species (Kim et al., 2018), and naturalized species (Lee et al., 2011) and so forth.

Results

According to our survey on the distribution of vascular plants in Mt. Munsusan, 94 families, 310 genera, 496 species, 4 subspecies, 63 varieties, and 8 formas were found, comprising a total of 571 taxa (Table 2). It was confirmed that this finding corresponds to 34% of 1,684 taxa of vascular plants in North Gyeongsang Province (Korea National Arboretum, 2017) and 11.7% of 4,881 taxa of vascular plants existing on the Korean Peninsula (Korea National Arboretum, 2017; http:// www.nature.go.kr/kpni/). Also, the recent results of the flora of Mt. Hwangaksan area in Baekdudaegan showed similar results as Mt. Munsusan results, and just over 30 taxa Angiospermae was investigated in Mt. Munsusan (Son et al., 2021).

Table 2.

The number of vascular plants by the taxonomic category in Mt. Munsusan

System Fam. Gen. Sp. subsp. var. f. Taxa
Pteridophyta 9 16 27 0 3 0 30
Gymnospermae 1 2 3 0 0 0 3
Angiospermae 84 292 466 4 60 8 538
Dicotyledons 75 242 372 4 55 8 439
Monocotyledons 9 50 94 0 5 0 99
Total 94 310 496 4 63 8 571

Compared with recent research outcomes and the total number of taxa provided in the previous studies undertaken in the identical surveyed area, 184 more than the 388 taxa presented in the result of Chung et al. (2015) as well as 130 more than the 442 taxa of Byeon et al. (2016) were examined in our research. The results of these two preceding studies included Mt. Munsusan and its nearby mountain areas - Mt. Oksok, Mt. Guryong - and facilities & exhibition gardens of the Baekdudaegan National Arboretum. Through our exercise, we conducted a variety of routes and seasonal surveys, allowing us to believe it offers the result of an intensive investigation, and we could obtain more precise outcome for vascular plants that are native to Mt. Munsusan.

Endemic species of Mt. Munsusan

Seventeen taxa of 11 families and 16 genera, including Salix koriyanagi Kimura, Clematis trichotoma Nakai, Corydalis maculata B. U. Oh & Y. S. Kim, Vicia chosenensis Ohwi, Cirsium setidens Nakai, Heloniopsis koreana Fuse, N. S. Lee & M. N. Tamura, Hemorocallis hakuunensis Nakai, and Carex okamotoi Ohwi are identified, taking up about 4.7% of Korea’s endemic plants (Chung et al., 2017, Table 3).

Table 3.

The list of the endemic plants in Mt. Munsusan

Scientific name Korean name 1z 2y
Populus tomentiglandulosa T.B.Lee 은사시나무
Salix koriyanagi Kimura 키버들
Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai 진범
Cimicifuga heracleifolia var. bifida Nakai 세잎승마
Clematis trichotoma Nakai 할미밀망
Corydalis maculata B.U.Oh & Y.S.Kim 점현호색
Vicia chosenensis Ohwi 노랑갈퀴
Ostericum praeteritum Kitag. 강활
Peucedanum insolens Kitag. 덕우기름나물
Ajuga spectabilis Nakai 자란초
Paulownia coreana Uyeki 오동나무
Weigela subsessilis (Nakai) L.H.Bailey 병꽃나무
Cirsium setidens (Dunn) Nakai 고려엉겅퀴
Heloniopsis koreana Fuse, N.S.Lee & M.N. Tamura 처녀치마
Hemerocallis hakuunensis Nakai 백운산원추리
Carex erythrobasis H.Lév. & Vaniot 한라사초
Carex okamotoi Ohwi 지리대사초

Besides Clematis trichotoma Nakai, Vicia chosenensis Ohwi, and Weigela subsessilis (Nakai) L. H. Bailey seen throughout the inland area of ​​North Gyeongsang Province, Peucedanum insolens Kitag, which is the southern limit species of the inland area of ​​the province, is verified (Jeong, 2019). First discovered in Mt. Deokwoo, Gangneung City, it was confirmed that P. insolens Kitag is a northern plant mainly distributed in Gangwon Province and grows wild around the valley of Mt. Munsusan. Its flowering period is July and August, and its leaves are similar to those of Astilbe chinensis (Maxim.) Franch. & Sav.. According to the Comprehensive Report on the Distribution of Rare and Endemic Plants (Korea National Arboretum, 2010), Lilium distichum Nakai ex Kamib., Rhododendron micranthum Turcz., Streptopus ovalis (Ohwi) F. T. Wang & Y. C. Tang and Weigela subsessilis (Nakai) L. H. Bailey, amongst the endemic species spread across Baekdudaegan region, are distributed in Mt. Munsusan.

When compared with the survey finding of Chung et al. (2015), seven taxa; Lonicera subsessilis Rehder, Pseudostellaria coreana (Nakai) Ohwi, Saussurea macrolepis (Nakai) Kitam., Saussurea uchiyamana Nakai, Salvia chanroenica Nakai, Lysimachia coreana Nakai, and Thalictrum actaeifolium var. brevistylum Nakai, along with five taxa; Thalictrum actaeifolium var. brevistylum Nakai, Philadelphus schrenkii Rupr., Eleutherococcus divaricatus var. chiisanensis (Nakai) C. H. Kim & B. Y. Sun, Saussurea macrolepis (Nakai) Kitam, and Saussurea uchiyamana Nakai are not verified. Thalictrum actaefolium var. brevistylum Nakai found in the central southern area of the Peninsula, out of the above unidentified taxa, is thought to be the misidentification of Thalictrum filamentosum var. tenerum (Huth) Ohwi, and other remaining taxa are believed to require further confirmation through a supplementary investigation on the research path of the preceding study. Among our surveyed taxa, newly identified endemic plants compared with the previous survey result are eight taxa, including Populus tomentiglandulosa T. B. Lee, a planting tree, Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai, Corydalis maculata B. U. Oh & Y. S. Kim, Ostericum praeteritum Kitag., Peucedanum insolens Kitag., Paulownia coreana Uyeki, Hemerocallis hakuunensis Nakai, and Carex erythrobasis H.Lév. & Vaniot.

Rare species of Mt. Munsusan

Rare plants designated by the Korea Forest Service are 12 taxa in 9 families and 12 genera, and critically endangered (CR), endangered species (EN), and data-deficient species (DD) were not investigated. Concerning vulnerable (VU) species, Cimicifuga heracleifolia var. bifida Nakai, Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe & Takeda, and Rhododendron micranthum Turcz. are confirmed, while nine taxa of Eranthis stellata Maxim., Viola albida Palib., and Parasenecio firmus (Kom.) Y. L. Chen for least concerned (LC) species, are investigated during our exercise (Table 4).

Table 4.

The list of rare species in Mt. Munsusan

Gradez Scientific name Korean name 1y 2x
VU(3) Cimicifuga heracleifolia var. bifida Nakai 세잎승마
Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe & Takeda 백작약
Rhododendron micranthum Turcz. 꼬리진달래
LC(9) Eranthis stellata Maxim. 너도바람꽃
Rodgersia podophylla A.Gray 도깨비부채
Viola albida Palib. 태백제비꽃
Gentiana triflora var. japonica (Kusn.) H. Hara 과남풀
Parasenecio firmus (Kom.) Y.L.Chen 병풍쌈
Lilium distichum Nakai ex Kamib. 말나리
Lloydia triflora (Ledeb.) Baker 나도개감채 w
Streptopus ovalis (Ohwi) F.T.Wang & Y.C.Tang 금강애기나리
Arisaema heterophyllum Blume 두루미천남성

zGrade: CR(Critically endangered), VU(Vulnerable), LC(Least concern).

y1 (Chung et al., 2015), x2 (Byeon et al., 2016), w△: misidentification.

If compared with the survey outcome of Chung et al. (2015), five taxa of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., Salvia chanryoenica Nakai, Epilobium angustifolium L., Lysimachia coreana Nakai, and Bupleurum L. are not identified, while the survey outcome of Byeon et al. (2016), nine taxa of Taxus cuspidata Siebold & Zucc., Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., Aristolochia contorta Bunge, Syringa wolfii C. K. Schneid., Trigonotis icumae (Maxim.) Makino, Salvia chanryoenica Nakai, Trillium camschatcense Ker Gawl., Eleutherococcus divaricatus var. chiisanensis (Nakai) C. H. Kim & B. Y. Sun, and Lloydia serotina (L.) Rchb. are unaccounted for, too. Among such unidentified taxa, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. is thought to be investigated in the cultivation area in this previous research, and Lloydia serotina (L.) Rchb. is believed to be the misidentification of Lloydia triflora (Ledeb.) Baker due to its distribution(Table 4, △w). Our judgment is that additional confirmation would be necessary for other remaining taxa through a supplementary investigation on the research path of the preceding study. Amongst the taxa that we examined, newly identified rare plants compared with the previous survey result are the one taxa of Arisaema heterophyllum Blume.

It was found in Mt. Munsusan’s neighborhood that the local national forest management office’s annual intensive management of the forest stand of Pinus densiflora f. erecta Uyeki is producing the fragmentation of the population of Rhododendron micranthum Turcz.. On the other hand, many plant colonies could be confirmed along the valley, such as Eranthis stellata Maxim., Parasenecio firmus (Kom.) Y. L. Chen, Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe & Takeda, and Rodgersia podophylla A. Gray, which prefer wet conditions rather than the dry environment.

Floristic regional indicator plants of Mt. Munsusan

Floristic regional indicator plants verified in Mt. Munsusan are 49 families, 90 genera, and 114 taxa. Grade IV is 8 taxa, including Woodsia macrochlaena Mett. ex Kuhn, Anemone reflexa Steph. ex Willd., and Rodgersia podophylla A. Gray; Grade III is 27 taxa, like Betula costata Trautv., Eranthis stellata Maxim., Spiraea fritschiana C. K. Schneid., and Vicia chosenensis Ohwi. There are 46 taxa, such as Huperzia miyoshiana (Makino) Ching, Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe & Takeda, and Ajuga spectabilis Nakai for Grade II; and 33 taxa for Grade I, such as Onoclea sensibilis var. interrupta Maxim., Clematis patens C. Morren & Decne. In total, 94 taxa were identified, accounting for 20.1% of the plants surveyed (Table 5, Appendix 1).

Table 5.

The list of the floristic regional indicator plants (Ⅳ∼Ⅱ) investigated in Mt. Munsusan

Grade Scienrific name Korean name
Ⅳ(8) Woodsia macrochlaena Mett. ex Kuhn 참우드풀
Anemone reflexa Steph. & Willd. 회리바람꽃
Cimicifuga heracleifolia var. bifida Nakai 세잎승마
Rodgersia podophylla A.Gray 도깨비부채
Spiraea trichocarpa Nakai 갈기조팝나무
Peucedanum insolens Kitag. 덕우기름나물
Rhododendron micranthum Turcz. 꼬리진달래
Parasenecio firmus (Kom.) Y.L.Chen 병풍쌈
Ⅲ(27) Betula costata Trautv. 거제수나무
Betula davurica Pall. 물박달나무
Betula schmidtii Regel 박달나무
Urtica angustifolia Fisch. ex Hornem. 가는잎쐐기풀
Actaea asiatica H.Hara 노루삼
Clematis heracleifolia DC. 병조희풀
Eranthis stellata Maxim. 너도바람꽃
Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. & Rupr.) Maxim. 쥐다래
Corydalis maculata B.U.Oh & Y.S.Kim 점현호색
Ribes mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kom. 까치밥나무
Ribes maximowiczianum Kom. 명자순
Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus (Maxim.) H.Hara 눈개승마
Potentilla cryptotaeniae Maxim. 물양지꽃
Prunus maackii Rupr. 개벚지나무
Prunus sargentii Rehder 산벚나무
Sanguisorba hakusanensis Makino 산오이풀
Spiraea fritschiana C.K.Schneid. 참조팝나무
Vicia chosenensis Ohwi 노랑갈퀴
Oxalis acetosella L. 애기괭이밥
Acer mandshuricum Maxim. 복장나무
Acer triflorum Kom. 복자기
Rhamnus ussuriensis J.Vass 참갈매나무
Vaccinium hirtum var. koreanum (Nakai) Kitam. 산앵도나무
Lysimachia vulgaris var. davurica (Ledeb.) R.Kunth 좁쌀풀
Brachybotrys paridiformis Maxim. ex Oliv. 당개지치
Lilium distichum Nakai ex Kamib. 말나리
Veratrum maackii var. japonicum (Baker) T.Schmizu 여로
Ⅱ(46) Lycopodium chinense H.Christ 다람쥐꼬리
Osmunda cinnamomea var. forkiensis Copel. 꿩고비
Dryopteris expansa (C.Presl) Fraser-Jenk. & Jermy 퍼진고사리
Polystichum braunii (Spenn.) Fee 좀나도히초미
Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. 잣나무
Betula ermanii Cham. 사스래나무
Bistorta manshuriensis (Petrov ex Kom.) Kom. 범꼬리
Lychnis cognata Maxim. 동자꽃
Magnolia sieboldii K.Koch 함박꽃나무
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. 오미자
Caltha palustris L. 동의나물
Caulophyllum robustum Maxim. 꿩의다리아재비
Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe & Takeda 백작약
Hylomecon vernalis Maxim. 피나물
Hylotelephium viviparum (Maxim.) H.Ohba 새끼꿩의비름
Chrysosplenium pilosum var. sphaerospermum H.Hara 금괭이눈
Potentilla dickinsii Franch. & Sav. 돌양지꽃
Prunus maximowiczii Rupr. 산개벚지나무
Sorbus commixta Hedl. 마가목
Spiraea salicifolia L. 꼬리조팝나무
Geranium koreanum Kom. 둥근이질풀
Phellodendron amurense Rupr. 황벽나무
Euonymus macropterus Rupr. 나래회나무
Tripterygium regelii Sprague & Takeda 미역줄나무
Tilia amurensis Rupr. 피나무
Tilia mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim. 찰피나무
Viola orientalis (Maxim.) W.Becker 노랑제비꽃
Viola tokubuchiana var. takedana (Makino) F.Maek. 민둥뫼제비꽃
Bupleurum longeradiatum Turcz. 개시호
Cymopterus melanotilingia (H.Boissieu) C.Y.Yoon 큰참나물
Sanicula rubriflora F.Schmidt ex Maxim. 붉은참반디
Primula jesoana Miq. 큰앵초
Galium kinuta Nakai & Hara 민둥갈퀴
Ajuga spectabilis Nakai 자란초
Scrophularia kakudensis Franch. 큰개현삼
Weigela florida (Bunge) A.DC. 붉은병꽃나무
Achillea alpina L. 톱풀
Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz. 곰취
Heloniopsis koreana Fuse, N.S.Lee & M.N.Tamura 처녀치마
Lloydia triflora (Ledeb.) Baker 나도개감채
Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F.W.Schmidt 두루미꽃
Carex augustinowiczii Menish. ex Korsh. 북사초
Carex erythrobasis H.Lév. & Vaniot 한라사초
Carex jaluensis Kom. 참삿갓사초
Carex onoei Franch. & Sav. 바늘사초
Carex planiculmis Kom. 그늘흰사초

The floristic regional indicator plants designated by the Ministry of Environment (Ministry of Environment, 2018) are divided into five grades (I ~ V) according to the distribution range of the plants and 1,476 taxa are designated as such as a result. Thus, they are adopted to determine the characteristics and the priorities for preservation. Grade II, where 33 taxa were investigated, especially, is distributed in five South Korean floristic region but appears in mountainous areas over 1,000 m so it generally contains many plants that are seen around Baekdudaegan. A number of plants verified in high- altitude areas, like Huperzia miyoshiana (Makino) Ching, Prunus maximowiczii Rupr., Geranium koreanum Kom., Streptopus ovalis (Ohwi) F. T. Wang & Y. C. Tang, and Carex okamotoi Ohwi were observed and surveyed at the area we investigated.

Naturalized species of Mt. Munsusan

Naturalized species affirmed in Mt. Munsusan, it turned out, are 25 taxa in 9 families, 24 genera, such as Phytolacca americana L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Aster pilosus Willd., Carduus crispus L., and Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. (Table 6). Consequently, the mountain’s naturalization rate is 4.8% [number of naturalized species investigated / total number of emerged species × 100], and its urbanization index is 7.7% [number of naturalized species investigated / total number of naturalized species in South Korea (321 taxa) × 100]. This figure is higher than the average urbanization index of 6.84% for forest-type and urban-type national parks in Korea (Jang et al., 2019). It was confirmed that a number of naturalized plants were discovered in the vicinity of Mt. Munsusan roads, where there is frequent vehicle traffic. Mt. Munsusan seems to be affected by the forestation for the continuous management of Pinus densiflora f. erecta Uyeki, forming a large-sized colony, and planted Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carrière, combined with artificial factors originating from mountaineering and trekking users of Oe-ssi-beo-sun Trail Course 9 placed adjacent to the Baekdudaegan National Arboretum.

Table 6.

The list of the naturalized plants in Mt. Munsusan

Scientific name Korean name 1y 2x
Fallopia dentatoalata (F.Schmidt) Holub 큰닭의덩굴
Fallopia dumetorum (L.) Holub 닭의덩굴
Rumex crispus L. 소리쟁이
Phytolacca americana L. 미국자리공
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. 유럽점나도나물
Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. 유럽나도냉이
Lepidium virginicum L. 콩다닥냉이
Amorpha fruticosa L. 족제비싸리
Indigofera bungeana Walp. 큰낭아초
Medicago sativa L. 자주개자리
Robinia pseudoacacia L. 아까시나무
Trifolium repens L. 토끼풀
Oenothera biennis L. 달맞이꽃
Quamoclit coccinea Moench 둥근잎유홍초
Veronica arvensis L. 선개불알풀
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. 돼지풀z
Aster pilosus Willd. 미국쑥부쟁이z
Bidens frondosa L. 미국가막사리
Carduus crispus L. 지느러미엉겅퀴
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist 망초
Erechtites hieracifolia Raf. 붉은서나물
Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. 개망초
Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) S.F.Blake 털별꽃아재비
Senecio vulgaris L. 개쑥갓
Taraxacum officinale Weber 서양민들레

zIAS (invasive alien species), y1 (Chung et al., 2015), x2 (Byeon et al., 2016).

In comparison with the survey result of Chung et al. (2015), ten taxa, such as Coreopsis lanceolata L. and Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt., which are planted extensively as horticultural plants, and Chenopodium album L., Dactylis glomerata L., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) L. W. Medicus, alongside the three taxa of Rumex obtusifolius L., Dactylis glomerata L., and Festuca arundicanea Shreb. were unidentified relative to the result of Byeon et al. (2016). We learned that most of such unidentified taxa are planted as horticultural species, pioneer species that entered bare or grassland first, or plants used for cover to stabilize the ground and slope after forest roads were opened. Given that fourteen more taxa were surveyed compared to latest researches, in particular, the number of naturalized plants is expected to increase gradually going forth.

Out of the investigated naturalized species, it was discovered that ecologically-disturbing plants with a high degree of harm to the ecosystem (Notice of Ecosystem Disturbance Designation, Ministry of Environment, No. 2020-61) are two taxa - Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Aster pilosus Willd. They are the species that invade the forest, spread rapidly and propagate, taking away the home of native plants. As they can harm the native species of Mt. Munsusan as such, continuous monitoring and removal are desired. So attempts have been made to observe their spread in the forest through sustained monitoring in the areas where they are identified, in parallel with preparing a plan by drawing on a guidebook for eliminating the species disturbing the ecosystem to stem their proliferation. The Guidebook on How to Remove the Plants Disturbing Ecosystems (Ministry of Environment, Wonju Regional Environment Office, 2016) states that the best method is to remove the root of Aster pilosus Willd. before its flower blooms because it is a perennial plant growing year round. As for Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., the best way, likewise, is to eliminate this plant before its flower blossoms as it is an annual species growing all year round. Since a lot of seeds are formed and germinate while it is in the ground, this species needs to be continuously removed for 4-5 years. Because it moves along the wind or waterway, it needs to be displaced starting from the upstream.

Useful resource species of Mt. Munsusan

On the basis of the classification of resource species according to their uses grouped by the Korea Forest Service (Korea Forest Service, 2014), 554 taxa or 97%, excluding species with no use, were counted as useful plants. In addition, a single plant can be used for multiple purposes so the sum of the proportions may exceed 100%. In terms of purpose, 391 taxa (68.5%) were the plants that can be consumed as food, 359 taxa (62.8%) for medicinal use, and 301 taxa (52.6%) for ornamental use. In all, over 50% of the surveyed flora can be utilized for edible, medicinal and ornamental purposes. Not only that, 241 taxa for feed/composting (42%), 217 taxa for industrial use (37.9%), 203 taxa for ecological restoration (35.3%), and 17 taxa for fragrance (3.1%) were identified, in this sequence (Table 7).

Table 7.

The Usefulness of vascular plants distributed in Mt. Munsusan

Usefulness Ez My Ox FCw Iv Ru Ft Total
Number of taxa 391 359 301 241 217 203 17 554
Ratio (%) 68.5 62.8 52.6 42.0 37.9 35.3 3.1 97

zE: Edible, yM: Medicinal, xO: Ornamental, wFC: Feed/Compost, vI: Industrial, uR: Restoration, tF: Flavor.

In particular, many species with high potential for use in various fields were investigated, as can be seen in our survey finding that plants which can be used for all of the seven purposes include 6 taxa, such as Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne., Rosa multiflora Thunb., and Viola mandshurica W. Becker; 36 taxa for the six purposes; 82 taxa for the five purposes; 122 taxa for the four purposes; 141 taxa for the three purposes; 122 taxa for the two purposes; and 48 taxa for the one purpose (Appendix 1). Therefore, this outcome can be capitalized on as the basic data for establishing a continued research and usage system since this discovery may lead not only to seed collection for rare and endemic species but also to plant nursery and further to the field of industrialization of wild plants.

In the list put forward in the Plant List of Mt. Munsusan (Appendix 1), edible (E) and medicinal (M) species requiring caution when they are for food intake are illustrated by additionally indicating them with (P). Table 7 is the sum of E+E(P) and M+M(P).

Discussion

Mt. Munsusan, our survey area, is at the foot of Mt. Okseok (Okdolbong), the main ridge of Baekdudaegan, and situated at the Baekdudaegan National Arboretum established for the plant research of Chuk-seo-sa Temple, Du-nae Mineral Spring, and Baekdudaegan. Investigating the vascular plants growing in this mountain and identifying and reporting the distribution of its major plants is designed for the systematic conservation and protection of Baekdudaegan, and it is a step for understanding the Baekdudaegan Reserve and its surrounding region. Our judgment is that it can supplement the result of the flora survey centering on the core location of ​​Baekdudaegan, namely, Marugeum, and it is valuable as the data informing the plants distributed in Mt. Sobaek area.

Furthermore, Mt. Munsusan is located where there is a colony of Pinus densiflora f. erecta Uyeki, serving as an important geographical location for gaining the foundational data to study and comprehend the plant resources of Baekdudaegan. Based the result of our plant survey, the distribution of various rare and endemic species was confirmed, above all else, so we believe it is an area suitable for a research aimed at learning about the changes in plant distribution and draw up management plans for the species in urgent need of conservation, through making ongoing surveys and long-term monitoring etc. At the same time, the outcome of such undertaking can be leveraged as the evidence for claiming Korea's biological sovereignty after the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity (ABS).

Human activities and their by-products, including the increase in naturalized plants, is the largest cont3ributor to ecosystem disturbance. Should such activities go on, we gather it is necessary to carry out a monitoring on Betula ermanii Cham., the arboreal species observed at an altitude of 1,000 m or higher near the summit of Mt. Munsusan and emerging in individual unit, for there is concern about the reduction in its vertical distribution range from climate change. Continuous monitoring and attention are called for to sustain the value of forest resources and genetic resources, which should be protected and conserved for future generations, including here, Mt. Munsusan, where various vascular plants have been reported.

Appendix

Appendix 1.

The list of vascular plants distributed in Mt. Munsusan

Family name & Scientific name Korean name 1z 2y 3x
Equisetaceae 속새과
Equisetum arvense L. 쇠뜨기 MSP-200001 E(P),M(P),I,FC
Lycopodiaceae 석송과
Lycopodium chinense H.Christ 다람쥐꼬리 MSP-200002 M,O
Selaginellaceae 부처손과
Selaginella rossii (Baker) Warb. 구실사리 MSP-200003 M,O,R
Ophioglossaceae 고사리삼과
Sceptridium ternatum (Thunb.) Lyon 고사리삼 MSP-200004 E,M,O
Osmundaceae 고비과
Osmunda cinnamomea var. forkiensis Copel. 꿩고비 MSS-190194 E(P),M(P),O,R
Osmunda japonica Thunb. 고비 MSP-200005 E(P),M(P),O,R
Pteridaceae 고사리과
Dennstaedtia hirsuta (Sw.) Mett. ex Miq. 잔고사리 MSP-200006 O
Dennstaedtia wilfordii (T.Moore) H.Christ 황고사리 MSS-190245 E(P),O
Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. ex Hell. 고사리 MSS-200060 E(P),M(P),I,R
Dryopteridaceae 면마과
Athyrium brevifrons Kodama ex Nakai 참새발고사리 MSP-200007 E,M
Athyrium distentifolium Tausch ex Opiz 산고사리 O
Athyrium niponicum (Mett.) Hance 개고사리 MSS-190086 E(P),M(P)
Deparia coreana (H.Christ) M.Kato 곱새고사리 MSP-200008 E(P),M(P)
Deparia japonica (Thunb.) M.Kato 진고사리 MSP-200009 E(P),M(P)
Deparia orientalis (Z.R.Wang & J.J.Chien) Nakaike 흰털고사리 MSS-190277
Deparia pycnosora (H.Christ) M.Kato 털고사리 MSP-200010
Dryopteris chinensis (Baker) Koidz. 가는잎족제비고사리 MSP-200011 O
Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai 관중 MSP-200012 E(P),M(P),R
Dryopteris expansa (C.Presl) Fraser-Jenk. & Jermy 퍼진고사리 MSP-200013 O
Dryopteris lacera (Thunb.) Kuntze 비늘고사리 MSP-200014 E(P),M(P),O,R
Onoclea orientalis (Hook.) Hook. 개면마 MSP-200015 E,M,O
Onoclea sensibilis var. interrupta Maxim. 야산고비 MSS-190203 E(P),M(P),O
Polystichum braunii (Spenn.) Fee 좀나도히초미 MSS-190063 M,O
Polystichum tripteron (Kunze) C.Presl 십자고사리 MSP-200016 E(P),M(P),O
Thelypteris palustris (Salisb.) Schott 처녀고사리 MSP-200017 E(P),M(P),O
Woodsia macrochlaena Mett. ex Kuhn 참우드풀 O
Woodsia manchuriensis Hook. 만주우드풀 MSS-190181 O
Aspleniaceae 꼬리고사리과
Asplenium incisum Thunb. 꼬리고사리 MSP-200018 O
Asplenium yokoscense (Franch. & Sav.) H.Christ 뱀고사리 MSS-200011 E(P),M(P)
Polypodiaceae 고란초과
Lepisorus ussuriensis (Regel & Maack) Ching 산일엽초 MSS-190138 M,O
Pinaceae 소나무과
Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carriere 일본잎갈나무 MSP-200019 M,I,O,R
Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. 소나무 MSS-200032 E,M,F,I,O,R
Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. 잣나무 MSP-200020 E,M,I,O,R
Juglandaceae 가래나무과
Juglans mandshurica Maxim. 가래나무 MSP-200021 E(P),M(P),I,R
Salicaceae 버드나무과
Populus davidiana Dode 사시나무 M,I,R,FC
Populus tomentiglandulosa T.B.Lee 은사시나무 MSS-190022 Endemic I,R
Salix caprea L. 호랑버들 MSP-200022 M,I,O,R,FC
Salix chaenomeloides Kimura 왕버들 MSS-190039 M,I,O,R
Salix gracilistyla Miq. 갯버들 MSS-190196 M,I,O,R,FC
Salix koreensis Andersson 버드나무 MSP-200023 M,I,O,R,FC
Salix koriyanagi Kimura 키버들 MSP-200024 Endemic M,I,O,R
Betulaceae 자작나무과
Alnus sibirica Fisch. ex Turcz. 물오리나무 MSS-190035 M,I,O,R
Betula costata Trautv. 거제수나무 MSP-200025 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Betula davurica Pall. 물박달나무 MSP-200026 M,I,FC
Betula ermanii Cham. 사스래나무 MSP-200027 E,M,I,R,FC
Betula schmidtii Regel 박달나무 MSP-200028 M,I,O,R
Carpinus laxiflora (Siebold & Zucc.) Blume 서어나무 MSP-200029 M,I,O,R,FC
Corylus heterophylla Fisch. ex Trautv. 개암나무 MSS-190257 E,M,I,R,FC
Corylus sieboldiana Blume var. sieboldiana 참개암나무 MSP-200030 E,M,R
Corylus sieboldiana var. mandshurica (Maxim. & Rupr.) C.K.Schneid. 물개암나무 E,M,O
Fagaceae 참나무과
Castanea crenata Siebold & Zucc. 밤나무 MSP-200031 E,M,I,R
Quercus acutissima Carruth. 상수리나무 MSP-200032 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Quercus aliena Blume 갈참나무 MSP-200033 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. 신갈나무 MSP-200034 E,M,I,R,FC
Quercus serrata Thunb. 졸참나무 MSP-200035 E,M,I,R,FC
Quercus variabilis Blume 굴참나무 MSP-200036 E,M,I,O,R
Ulmaceae 느릅나무과
Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) Nakai 느릅나무 MSS-190016 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino 느티나무 MSP-200037 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Moraceae 뽕나무과
Morus bombycis Koidz. 산뽕나무 MSS-190095 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Cannabaceae 삼과
Humulus japonicus Sieboid & Zucc. 환삼덩굴 MSP-200038 E,M,I,FC
Urticaceae 쐐기풀과
Boehmeria platanifolia Franch. & Sav. 개모시풀 MSP-200343   E,M,I,FC
Boehmeria spicata (Thunb.) Thunb. 좀깨잎나무 MSP-200039 E,M,I,O,R
Boehmeria tricuspis var. unicuspis Makino 풀거북꼬리 MSS-190047 E,I,FC
Pilea japonica (Maxim.) Hand.-Mazz. 산물통이 MSP-200040 E,M
Pilea mongolica Wedd. 모시물통이 MSP-200041 E,M,FC
Urtica angustifolia Fisch. ex Hornem. 가는잎쐐기풀 MSS-190162 E,M
Santalaceae 단향과
Thesium chinense Turcz. 제비꿀 MSP-200042 M
Loranthaceae 겨우살이과
Viscum album var. coloratum (Kom.) Ohwi 겨우살이 MSS-190142 E(P),M(P),O
Polygonaceae 마디풀과
Bistorta manshuriensis (Petrov ex Kom.) Kom. 범꼬리 MSS-190177 E,M,I,FC
Fallopia dentatoalata (F.Schmidt) Holub 큰닭의덩굴 MSS-190174 N E,M
Fallopia dumetorum (L.) Holub 닭의덩굴 MSP-200043 N E,M
Persicaria dissitiflora (Hemsl.) H.Gross ex Mori 가시여뀌 MSP-200044 I,FC
Persicaria filiformis (Thunb.) Nakai ex Mori 이삭여뀌 MSS-200007 E,M,I,O
Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray 흰여뀌 MSS-190004 E,M,I,FC
Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) H.Gross 산여뀌 MSS-190043 M,FC
Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H.Gross 며느리배꼽 MSP-200045 E,M,I
Persicaria posumbu var. laxiflora (Meisn.) H.Hara 장대여뀌 MSS-190274 E,M,I,O
Persicaria sagittata (L.) H.Gross ex Nakai 미꾸리낚시 MSS-190042 M,I,FC
Persicaria thunbergii (Siebold & Zucc.) H.Gross ex Nakai 고마리 MSS-200038 E,M,I,O,FC
Polygonum aviculare L. 마디풀 MSP-200046 E,M
Rumex acetosa L. 수영 MSS-190197 E,M,I,O
Rumex crispus L. 소리쟁이 MSP-200047 N E(P),M(P),I,FC
Phytolaccaceae 자리공과
Phytolacca americana L. 미국자리공 MSS-190225 N E(P),M(P),O,FC
Portulacaceae 쇠비름과
Portulaca oleracea L. 쇠비름 MSP-200048 E,M,R,FC
Caryophyllaceae 석죽과
Arenaria serpyllifolia L. 벼룩이자리 MSP-200049 E,M
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. 유럽점나도나물 MSS-190205 N E,FC
Cerastium holosteoides var. hallaisanense (Nakai) Mizush. 점나도나물 MSS-190129 E,M
Lychnis cognata Maxim. 동자꽃 MSP-200050 E,M,O,R,FC
Pseudostellaria davidii (Franch.) Pax ex Pax & Hoffm. 덩굴개별꽃 MSS-190104 E,M,FC
Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax ex Pax & Hoffm. 개별꽃 MSS-190158 E,M
Pseudostellaria palibiniana (Takeda) Ohwi 큰개별꽃 MSS-190067 E,M,FC
Silene firma Siebold & Zucc. 장구채 MSP-200051 E,M,O,FC
Stellaria alsine var. undulata (Thunb.) Ohwi 벼룩나물 MSP-200052 E,M,FC
Stellaria aquatica (L.) Scop. 쇠별꽃 MSP-200053 E,M,O,FC
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. 별꽃 MSP-200054 E,M,O
Chenopodiaceae 명아주과
Chenopodium album var. centrorubrum Makino 명아주 MSP-200055 E(P),M(P),I,O,FC
Magnoliaceae 목련과
Magnolia sieboldii K.Koch 함박꽃나무 MSP-200056 M,I,O,R,FC
Schisandraceae 오미자과
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. 오미자 MSP-200057 E,M,R
Lauraceae 녹나무과
Lindera obtusiloba Blume 생강나무 MSS-190075 E,M,F,I,O,R
Ranunculaceae 미나리아재비과
Aconitum jaluense Kom. 투구꽃 MSS-200061 E(P),M(P),I,O,R
Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai 진범 MSP-200058 Endemic M(P),O
Actaea asiatica H.Hara 노루삼 MSS-190066 E(P),M(P),O
Anemone reflexa Steph. & Willd. 회리바람꽃 MSP-200059 M(P),O
Caltha palustris L. 동의나물 MSP-200060 E(P),M(P),O,R,FC
Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Maxim. 눈빛승마 MSS-190252 E(P),M(P)
Cimicifuga heracleifolia var. bifida Nakai 세잎승마 MSP-200061 Rare(VU), Endemic, Ⅳ
Cimicifuga simplex (DC.) Turcz. 촛대승마 MSP-200062 E(P),M(P),O
Clematis apiifolia DC. 사위질빵 MSP-200063 E(P),M(P),I,O,R
Clematis heracleifolia DC. 병조희풀 MSS-190256 E(P),M(P),O
Clematis patens C.Morren & Decne. 큰꽃으아리 MSP-200064 E,M,O
Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica (Rupr.) Ohwi 으아리 MSS-190161 E(P),M(P),O,R
Clematis trichotoma Nakai 할미밀망 MSS-190238 Endemic E,M,O
Eranthis stellata Maxim. 너도바람꽃 MSP-200065 Rare(LC), Ⅲ O
Hepatica asiatica Nakai 노루귀 MSP-200066 M(P),O,R
Pulsatilla koreana (Yabe ex Nakai) Nakai ex Nakai 할미꽃 MSP-200067 E(P),M(P),I,O,R
Ranunculus chinensis Bunge 젓가락나물 MSP-200068 E(P),M(P)
Ranunculus japonicus Thunb. 미나리아재비 MSP-200069 E(P),M(P),I,FC
Thalictrum filamentosum var. tenerum (Huth) Ohwi 산꿩의다리 MSP-200070 E,M,O
Berberidaceae 매자나무과
Caulophyllum robustum Maxim. 꿩의다리아재비 MSP-200071 E,M,O
Lardizabalaceae 으름덩굴과
Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne. 으름덩굴 MSP-200072 E,M,F,I,O,R,FC
Menispermaceae 방기과
Menispermum dauricum DC. 새모래덩굴 MSP-200073 M,I,R
Chloranthaceae 홀아비꽃대과
Chloranthus japonicus Siebold 홀아비꽃대 MSS-190267 E,M,O,R
Aristolochiaceae 쥐방울덩굴과
Asarum sieboldii Miq. 족도리풀 MSS-190079 E(P),M(P),I,O
Paeoniaceae 작약과
Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe & Takeda 백작약 MSP-200074 Rare(VU), Ⅱ E,M,F,O
Actinidiaceae 다래나무과
Actinidia arguta (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. 다래 MSP-200075 E,M,I,O,R
Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. & Rupr.) Maxim. 쥐다래 MSP-200076 E,M,I
Actinidia polygama (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. ex Maxim. 개다래 MSS-190150 E(P),M(P),I,R
Guttiferae 물레나물과
Hypericum ascyron L. 물레나물 MSS-190023 E,M,O,R
Hypericum erectum Thunb. 고추나물 MSS-200003 E,M,O,FC
Papaveraceae 양귀비과
Chelidonium majus var. asiaticum (Hara) Ohwi 애기똥풀 MSP-200077 E(P),M(P),I
Hylomecon vernalis Maxim. 피나물 MSP-200078 E(P),M(P),O
Fumariaceae 현호색과
Corydalis maculata B.U.Oh & Y.S.Kim 점현호색 MSP-200079 Endemic, Ⅲ
Corydalis pauciovulata Ohwi 선괴불주머니 MSS-190261 M,FC
Corydalis remota Fisch. ex Maxim. 현호색 MSS-190068 E(P),M(P),O
Corydalis speciosa Maxim. 산괴불주머니 MSP-200080 E(P),M(P),O,FC
Cruciferae 십자화과
Arabis glabra Bernh. 장대나물 MSP-200081 E
Arabis pendula L. 느러진장대 MSP-200082 E,M
Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. 유럽나도냉이 MSP-200083 N E
Capsella bursapastoris (L.) L.W.Medicus 냉이 MSP-200084 E,M
Cardamine fallax L. 좁쌀냉이 MSP-200085 E
Cardamine flexuosa With. 황새냉이 MSP-200086 E,M
Cardamine impatiens L. 싸리냉이 MSS-190092 E,M
Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O.E.Schulz 미나리냉이 MSS-190216 E,M,R
Cardamine manshurica (Kom.) Nakai 애기황새냉이 MSS-190209
Cardamine scutata Thunb. 큰황새냉이 MSP-200344   E
Draba nemorosa L. 꽃다지 MSP-200087 E,M,R
Lepidium virginicum L. 콩다닥냉이 MSP-200088 N E,M
Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern 개갓냉이 MSP-200089 E,M
Rorippa palustris (Leyss.) Besser 속속이풀 MSP-200090 E,M
Sisymbrium luteum (Maxim.) O.E.Schulz 노란장대 MSS-190173 E
Crassulaceae 돌나물과
Hylotelephium viviparum (Maxim.) H.Ohba 새끼꿩의비름 MSS-200004 E,M,O
Sedum aizoon L. 가는기린초 MSS-190137 E,M,O
Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch. & Mey. 기린초 MSS-190114 E,M,O,R
Sedum sarmentosum Bunge 돌나물 MSP-200091 E,M,O,R
Saxifragaceae 범의귀과
Astilbe koreana (Kom.) Nakai 숙은노루오줌 MSP-200092 E,O
Astilbe rubra Hook.f. & Thomson 노루오줌 MSS-200020 E,M,O,R,FC
Chrysosplenium flagelliferum F.Schmidt 애기괭이눈 MSS-190080 E
Chrysosplenium pilosum var. sphaerospermum H.Hara 금괭이눈 MSP-200093
Deutzia glabrata Kom. 물참대 MSP-200094 I,O
Deutzia parviflora Bunge 말발도리 MSP-200345  M,I,O,R
Deutzia uniflora Shirai 매화말발도리 MSP-200095 I,O
Hydrangea serrata f. acuminata (Siebold & Zucc.) E.H.Wilson 산수국 MSS-190107 E,M,I,O,R
Philadelphus tenuifolius Rupr. & Maxim. 얇은잎고광나무 MSP-200096 I,O
Ribes mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kom. 까치밥나무 MSP-200097 E,M,O
Ribes maximowiczianum Kom. 명자순 MSS-190160 E,M,O
Rodgersia podophylla A.Gray 도깨비부채 MSP-200098 Rare(LC), Ⅳ M,O
Saxifraga fortunei var. incisolobata (Engl. & Irmsch.) Nakai 바위떡풀 MSP-200099 E,M,O
Rosaceae 장미과
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. 짚신나물 MSS-200029 E,M,I,FC
Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus (Maxim.) H.Hara 눈개승마 MSP-200100 E,M,O
Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke 뱀딸기 MSS-190011 E,M,O,R,FC
Filipendula glaberrima Nakai 터리풀 MSS-190159 E,M,O,R,FC
Geum aleppicum Jacq. 큰뱀무 MSP-200101 E,M,FC
Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. 야광나무 MSS-190097 E,M,I,O,R
Potentilla cryptotaeniae Maxim. 물양지꽃 MSP-200102 E,M,O,FC
Potentilla dickinsii Franch. & Sav. 돌양지꽃 MSP-200103 E,M
Potentilla fragarioides var. major Maxim. 양지꽃 MSS-190135 E,M,O,R
Potentilla freyniana Bornm. 세잎양지꽃 MSP-200104 E,M,O,FC
Potentilla koreana H.Ikeda & H.T.Im 털양지꽃 MSP-200105
Prunus maackii Rupr. 개벚지나무 MSS-190073 E,M
Prunus maximowiczii Rupr. 산개벚지나무 MSP-200106 E,M,I,O
Prunus padus L. 귀룽나무 MSS-190237 E,M,R
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch 복사나무 MSS-190214 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Prunus sargentii Rehder 산벚나무 MSP-200346  E,M,I,O,R,FC
Prunus serrulata var. pubescens (Makino) Nakai 잔털벚나무 MSS-190065 E,O
Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. 산돌배 MSP-200107 E,M,I,O,R
Rosa multiflora Thunb. 찔레꽃 MSP-200108 E,M,F,I,O,R,FC
Rubus crataegifolius Bunge 산딸기 MSP-200109 E,M,I,R,FC
Rubus idaeus var. microphyllus Turcz. 멍덕딸기 MSP-200110 E
Rubus oldhamii Miq. 줄딸기 MSS-190204 E,M,I
Rubus parvifolius L. 멍석딸기 MSP-200111 E,M,I
Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim. 곰딸기 MSS-190033 E,M,I
Sanguisorba hakusanensis Makino 산오이풀 MSP-200112 E,M,I,O,R
Sanguisorba officinalis L. 오이풀 MSS-200063 E,M,I,O,FC
Sorbus alnifolia (Siebold & Zucc.) K.Koch 팥배나무 MSP-200113 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Sorbus commixta Hedl. 마가목 MSS-190131 E,M,I,O,R
Spiraea fritschiana C.K.Schneid. 참조팝나무 MSP-200114 E,M,I,O
Spiraea prunifolia f. simpliciflora Nakai 조팝나무 MSP-200115 E,M,I,O,R
Spiraea salicifolia L. 꼬리조팝나무 MSP-200116 E,M,I,O,R
Spiraea trichocarpa Nakai 갈기조팝나무 MSP-200117 E,I,O,R
Stephanandra incisa (Thunb.) Zabel 국수나무 MSP-200118 E,I,O,R
Leguminosae 콩과
Amorpha fruticosa L. 족제비싸리 MSP-200119 N M,I,O,R,FC
Amphicarpaea bracteata subsp. edgeworthii (Benth.) H.Ohashi 새콩 MSS-190049 E,M,FC
Chamaecrista nomame (Siebold) H.Ohashi 차풀 MSP-200120 E,M,R,FC
Desmodium oldhami Oliv. 큰도둑놈의갈고리 MSP-200121 M,O,FC
Desmodium podocarpum var. oxyphyllum (DC.) H.Ohashi 도둑놈의갈고리 MSS-190255 M,I,O,FC
Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc. 돌콩 MSP-200122 E,M,FC
Indigofera bungeana Walp. 큰낭아초 MSS-190014 N
Indigofera kirilowii Maxim. ex Palib. 땅비싸리 MSP-200123 E,M,I,O,R
Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. 매듭풀 MSS-190036 M,R,FC
Lathyrus davidii Hance 활량나물 MSS-190034 E,M,I,O
Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. 싸리 MSS-200049 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Lespedeza cuneata G.Don 비수리 MSS-190012 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Lespedeza cyrtobotrya Miq. 참싸리 MSP-200124 E,M,I,O,R
Lespedeza maximowiczii C.K.Schneid. 조록싸리 MSS-200015 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Maackia amurensis Rupr. 다릅나무 MSP-200125 M,I,R
Medicago sativa L. 자주개자리 MSP-200126 N E,M,R,FC
Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi MSP-200127 E,M,I,R,FC
Robinia pseudoacacia L. 아까시나무 MSS-190246 N E,M,F,I,O,R,FC
Trifolium repens L. 토끼풀 MSP-200128 N E,M,I,O,R,FC
Vicia amurensis Oett. 벌완두 MSP-200129 E,FC
Vicia chosenensis Ohwi 노랑갈퀴 MSS-200006 Endemic, Ⅲ E,FC
Vicia hirsuta (L.) Gray 새완두 MSP-200130 E,M,I,O,FC
Vicia unijuga A.Braun 나비나물 MSS-200023 E,M,FC
Vicia venosa var. cuspidata Maxim. 광릉갈퀴 MSS-200059 E,I,O
Oxalidaceae 괭이밥과
Oxalis acetosella L. 애기괭이밥 MSS-190069 E,M,O
Oxalis corniculata L. 괭이밥 MSP-200131 E,M,I,O
Oxalis obtriangulata Maxim. 큰괭이밥 MSS-190026 E,M,I,O
Geraniaceae 쥐손이풀과
Geranium koreanum Kom. 둥근이질풀 MSP-200132 M,FC
Geranium thunbergii Siebold & Zucc. 이질풀 MSP-200133 E,M,R,FC
Geranium wilfordii Maxim. 세잎쥐손이 MSP-200134 M
Euphorbiaceae 대극과
Acalypha australis L. 깨풀 MSP-200135 E,M,FC
Euphorbia sieboldiana Morren & Decne. 개감수 MSP-200136 M,O
Securinega suffruticosa (Pall.) Rehder 광대싸리 MSP-200137 E,M,I
Rutaceae 운향과
Phellodendron amurense Rupr. 황벽나무 MSP-200138 M,I,O,R,FC
Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold & Zucc. var. schinifolium 산초나무 MSP-200139 E,M,I,R
Zanthoxylum schinifolium var. inermis (Nakai) T.B.Lee 민산초나무 MSP-200140 E
Simaroubaceae 소태나무과
Picrasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn. 소태나무 MSP-200141 E,M,I,O
Anacardiaceae 옻나무과
Rhus javanica L. 붉나무 MSP-200142 E(P),M(P),I,O,R
Rhus tricocarpa Miq. 개옻나무 MSS-190141 E(P),M(P),I,R
Aceraceae 단풍나무과
Acer mandshuricum Maxim. 복장나무 MSP-200143 I,O
Acer pictum subsp. mono (Maxim.) Ohashi 고로쇠나무 MSS-190219 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Acer pictum var. truncatum (Bunge) C.S.Chang 만주고로쇠 MSS-190183 E,M,I,O
Acer pseudosieboldianum (Pax) Kom. 당단풍나무 MSS-190182 I,O,R
Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala (Maxim.) Wesm. 신나무 MSP-200144 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Acer triflorum Kom. 복자기 MSP-200145 M,I,O,R
Balsaminaceae 봉선화과
Impatiens nolitangere L. 노랑물봉선 MSP-200146 M,I,O,FC
Impatiens textori Miq. 물봉선 MSS-200012 M,I,O
Celastraceae 노박덩굴과
Celastrus flagellaris Rupr. 푼지나무 MSP-200147 E,I,O
Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. 노박덩굴 MSP-200148 E,M,I,O,R
Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold f. alatus 화살나무 MSS-190027 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Euonymus alatus f. ciliatodentatus (Franch. & Sav.) Hiyama 회잎나무 MSS-190030 E,FC
Euonymus hamiltonianus Wall. 참빗살나무 MSP-200149 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Euonymus macropterus Rupr. 나래회나무 MSS-190088 M,I,O,FC
Euonymus oxyphyllus Miq. 참회나무 MSS-200014 M,I,O,FC
Euonymus sachalinensis (F.Schmidt) Maxim. 회나무 MSP-200150 E,M,R
Tripterygium regelii Sprague & Takeda 미역줄나무 MSP-200151 E(P),M(P),I,O,R
Staphyleaceae 고추나무과
Staphylea bumalda DC. 고추나무 MSS-190211 E,M,O,R
Rhamnaceae 갈매나무과
Rhamnus ussuriensis J.Vass 참갈매나무 MSP-200152
Vitaceae 포도과
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv. 개머루 MSP-200153 E,M
Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. 담쟁이덩굴 MSP-200154 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Vitis amurensis Rupr. 왕머루 MSP-200155 E,M,I,O,FC
Tiliaceae 피나무과
Tilia amurensis Rupr. 피나무 MSP-200156 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Tilia mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim. 찰피나무 MSS-190163 M,I,O,FC
Violaceae 제비꽃과
Viola acuminata Ledeb. 졸방제비꽃 MSP-200157 E,M,O
Viola albida Palib. var. albida 태백제비꽃 MSS-190259 Rare(LC) E,M,O
Viola albida var. chaerophylloides (Regel) F.Maek. ex Hara 남산제비꽃 MSP-200158 E,M,O
Viola collina Besser 둥근털제비꽃 MSS-190242 E,M,O
Viola japonica Langsd. ex Ging. 왜제비꽃 MSP-200159 E,M,O
Viola keiskei Miq. 잔털제비꽃 MSS-190056 E,M,O
Viola mandshurica W.Becker 제비꽃 MSP-200160 E,M,F,I,O,R,FC
Viola orientalis (Maxim.) W.Becker 노랑제비꽃 MSS-190133 M
Viola phalacrocarpa Maxim. 털제비꽃 MSP-200161 E,M,O
Viola rossii Hemsl. 고깔제비꽃 MSS-200010 E,M
Viola selkirkii Pursh ex Goldie 뫼제비꽃 MSP-200162 E,M,O
Viola tokubuchiana var. takedana (Makino) F.Maek. f. takedana 민둥뫼제비꽃 MSP-200163 M,O
Viola tokubuchiana var. takedana f. variegata F.Maek. 줄민둥뫼제비꽃 MSP-200164
Viola variegata Fisch. ex Link var. variegata 알록제비꽃 MSS-190207 E,M,O,R
Viola variegata var. chinensis Bunge 자주알록제비꽃 MSP-200165
Viola verecunda A.Gray 콩제비꽃 MSP-200166 E,M,O,FC
Viola yedoensis Makino 호제비꽃 MSP-200167 E,M
Onagraceae 바늘꽃과
Circaea mollis Slebold & Zucc. 털이슬 MSP-200168 M,O,FC
Oenothera biennis L. 달맞이꽃 MSP-200169 N E,M,I,O,R,FC
Alangiaceae 박쥐나무과
Alangium platanifolium var. trilobum (Miq.) Ohwi 박쥐나무 MSS-190123 E(P),M(P),O,R,FC
Cornaceae 층층나무과
Cornus controversa Hemsl. 층층나무 MSP-200170 E,M,I,O,R
Araliaceae 두릅나무과
Aralia cordata var. continentalis (Kitag.) Y.C.Chu 독활 MSS-200034 E,M,I,O
Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. 두릅나무 MSP-200171 E,M,O,R
Eleutherococcus divaricatus (Siebold & Zucc.) S.Y.Hu 털오갈피나무 MSP-200172 E,M
Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (Rupr. & Maxim.) S.Y.Hu 오갈피나무 MSS-190064 E,M,I,O,R
Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz. 음나무 MSS-190184 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Umbelliferae 산형과
Angelica amurensis Schischk. 지리강활 MSP-200173 E,M
Angelica anomala Ave-Lall. 개구릿대 MSP-200347  E,M
Angelica cartilagino-marginata (Makino) Nakai 처녀바디 MSP-200174 E,M
Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav. 구릿대 MSP-200175 E,M,FC
Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. & Sav. 바디나물 MSS-200064 E,M
Angelica gigas Nakai 참당귀 MSP-200348   E,M
Angelica polymorpha Maxim. 궁궁이 MSS-200037 E,M,F,I,R
Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. 전호 MSP-200176 E,M,FC
Bupleurum longeradiatum Turcz. 개시호 MSS-190175 E,M
Cymopterus melanotilingia (H.Boissieu) C.Y.Yoon 큰참나물 MSP-200177 E,M
Heracleum moellendorffii Hance 어수리 MSP-200178 E,M,FC
Ostericum grosseserratum (Maxim.) Kitag. 신감채 MSP-200179 E,M,FC
Ostericum praeteritum Kitag. 강활 MSP-200180 Endemic E,M
Peucedanum insolens Kitag. 덕우기름나물 MSP-200181 Endemic, Ⅳ
Peucedanum terebinthaceum (Fisch.) Fisch. ex DC. 기름나물 MSS-200044 E,M
Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai 참나물 MSS-200018 E,M,FC
Sanicula chinensis Bunge 참반디 MSP-200182 E,M
Sanicula rubriflora F.Schmidt ex Maxim. 붉은참반디 MSP-200183 E,M,FC
Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC. 사상자 MSP-200184 E,M,I
Pyrolaceae 노루발과
Pyrola japonica Klenze ex Alef. 노루발 MSS-200043 E,M,O
Ericaceae 진달래과
Rhododendron micranthum Turcz. 꼬리진달래 MSS-190171 Rare(VU), Ⅳ M(P),O
Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. 진달래 MSS-200047 E,M,I,O,R
Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim. 철쭉 MSP-200186 E(P),M(P),I,O,R
Rhododendron yedoense f. poukhanense (H.Lév.) M.Sugim. ex T.Yamaz. 산철쭉 MSP-200187 M,I,O,R
Vaccinium hirtum var. koreanum (Nakai) Kitam. 산앵도나무 MSS-200050 E,M,O
Primulaceae 앵초과
Lysimachia clethroides Duby 큰까치수염 MSP-200188 E,M,O,FC
Lysimachia vulgaris var. davurica (Ledeb.) R.Kunth 좁쌀풀 MSS-190164 E,M,O
Primula jesoana Miq. 큰앵초 MSP-200189 E,M,O
Styracaceae 때죽나무과
Styrax japonicus Siebold & Zucc. 때죽나무 MSP-200190 M(P),I,O,R,FC
Styrax obassia Siebold & Zucc. 쪽동백나무 MSS-190115 M,I,O,R,FC
Symplocaceae 노린재나무과
Symplocos chinensis f. pilosa (Nakai) Ohwi 노린재나무 MSS-190108 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Oleaceae 물푸레나무과
Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance 물푸레나무 MSS-190232 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Fraxinus sieboldiana Blume 쇠물푸레나무 MSS-190113 M,I,O,R
Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc. 쥐똥나무 MSP-200191 E,M,I,O,R
Syringa patula (Palib.) Nakai 털개회나무 MSS-190122 M,I,O
Gentianaceae 용담과
Gentiana scabra Bunge 용담 MSP-200192 M,O,R,FC
Gentiana triflora var. japonica (Kusn.) H.Hara 과남풀 MSP-200193 Rare(LC) E,M,O
Gentiana zollingeri Faw. 큰구슬붕이 MSS-190134 M,O
Asclepiadaceae 박주가리과
Cynanchum ascyrifolium (Franch. & Sav.) Matsum. 민백미꽃 MSS-200026 M,O
Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino 박주가리 MSP-200194 E,M,I,FC
Rubiaceae 꼭두서니과
Asperula maximowiczii Kom. 개갈퀴 MSS-200005 E
Galium dahuricum Turcz. var. dahuricum 큰잎갈퀴 MSP-200195 E,O,R
Galium dahuricum var. tokyoense (Makino) Cufod. 흰갈퀴 O,R
Galium gracilens (A.Gray) Makino 좀네잎갈퀴 MSP-200196 E,O,R
Galium kinuta Nakai & Hara 민둥갈퀴 MSS-190153 E,O,R
Galium pogonanthum Franch. & Sav. 산갈퀴 MSP-200197 E,O,R
Galium spurium var. echinospermon (Wallr.) Hayek 갈퀴덩굴 MSP-200198 E,M,O,R
Galium verum var. asiaticum Nakai 솔나물 MSP-200199 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Rubia akane Nakai 꼭두서니 MSP-200200 E(P),M(P),I,FC
Rubia chinensis Regel & Maack 큰꼭두서니 MSP-200201 M,I
Rubia cordifolia var. pratensis Maxim. 갈퀴꼭두서니 MSP-200202 E,M,I,FC
Convolvulaceae 메꽃과
Cuscuta japonica Choisy 새삼 MSP-200203 E,M
Quamoclit coccinea Moench 둥근잎유홍초 MSP-200204 N E,M,O
Boraginaceae 지치과
Brachybotrys paridiformis Maxim. ex Oliv. 당개지치 MSP-200205 E,M
Trigonotis peduncularis (Trevir.) Benth. ex Hemsl. 꽃마리 MSP-200206 E,M,O
Trigonotis radicans var. sericea (Maxim.) H.Hara 참꽃마리 MSP-200207 E,M,O
Verbenaceae 마편초과
Callicarpa japonica Thunb. 작살나무 MSS-190148 M,I,O,R,FC
Caryopteris divaricata (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. 누린내풀 MSP-200208 E,M,I,O
Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. 누리장나무 MSS-190166 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Labiatae 꿀풀과
Agastache rugosa (Fisch. & Mey.) Kuntze 배초향 MSS-190013 E,M,I,R,FC
Ajuga spectabilis Nakai 자란초 MSP-200209 Endemic, Ⅱ E,M,I,O
Clinopodium chinense var. shibetchense (H.Lév.) Koidz. 산층층이 MSP-200210 E,FC
Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb.) Hyl. 향유 MSS-190046 E,M,I,O
Elsholtzia splendens Nakai 꽃향유 MSP-200211 E,M,F,I,O,R
Isodon excisus (Maxim.) Kudo 오리방풀 MSP-200212 E,M,I,O
Isodon inflexus (Thunb.) Kudo 산박하 MSS-200024 E,M,I,O
Isodon japonicus (Burm.) Hara 방아풀 MSS-190187 E,M,I,O,FC
Lamium album var. barbatum (Siebold & Zucc.) Franch. & Sav. 광대수염 MSS-190218 E,M,I,O,FC
Leonurus japonicus Houtt. 익모초 MSP-200213 E,M,F,I,O
Lycopus lucidus Turcz. ex Benth. 쉽싸리 MSS-200030 E,M,I,O
Meehania urticifolia (Miq.) Makino 벌깨덩굴 MSS-190096 E,M,I,R,FC
Mosla punctulata (J.F.Gmelin) Nakai 들깨풀 MSP-200214 E,M,FC
Phlomis umbrosa Turcz. 속단 MSS-200021 E,M
Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina Nakai 꿀풀 MSP-200215 E,M,I,O,R
Salvia plebeia R.Br. 배암차즈기 MSP-200216 E,M,I,O
Scutellaria fauriei H.Lév. & Vaniot 그늘골무꽃 MSS-190167
Scutellaria indica L. 골무꽃 MSP-200217 E,M,R
Scutellaria pekinensis var. transitra (Makino) Hara 산골무꽃 MSP-200218 M,FC
Stachys japonica Miq. 석잠풀 MSP-200219 E,M,I,R,FC
Solanaceae 가지과
Solanum nigrum L. 까마중 MSP-200220 E(P),M(P),FC
Scrophulariaceae 현삼과
Mazus pumilus (Burm.f.) Steenis 주름잎 MSP-200221 E,M,I
Melampyrum roseum Maxim. var. roseum 꽃며느리밥풀 MSP-200222 M,I,O
Melampyrum roseum var. ovalifolium Nakai ex Beauverd 알며느리밥풀 MSS-200046 I,O
Mimulus nepalensis Benth. 물꽈리아재비 MSS-200008 M
Paulownia coreana Uyeki 오동나무 MSP-200223 Endemic E,M,I,O,R
Pedicularis resupinata L. 송이풀 MSP-200224 E,M,I,O,FC
Phtheirospermum japonicum (Thunb.) Kanitz 나도송이풀 MSS-190236 E,M,I,O
Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. 현삼 M,O
Scrophularia kakudensis Franch. 큰개현삼 MSP-200225 M,O
Veronica arvensis L. 선개불알풀 MSP-200226 N M,I
Veronica rotunda var. subintegra (Nakai) T.Yamaz. 산꼬리풀 MSP-200227 E,M,I,R
Phrymaceae 파리풀과
Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica H.Hara 파리풀 MSS-200033 M(P),I,O,FC
Plantaginaceae 질경이과
Plantago asiatica L. 질경이 MSP-200228 E,M,I,O
Caprifoliaceae 인동과
Lonicera japonica Thunb. 인동덩굴 MSP-200229 E,M,F,I,O,R,FC
Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim. 괴불나무 MSP-200230 E,M,I,O,R
Lonicera praeflorens Batalin 올괴불나무 MSP-200231 E,M,I,O
Sambucus williamsii var. coreana (Nakai) Nakai 딱총나무 MSS-190093 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Viburnum carlesii Hemsl. 분꽃나무 MSP-200350   E,O,R
Viburnum opulus var. calvescens (Rehder) H.Hara 백당나무 MSP-200232 M,I,O,R
Weigela florida (Bunge) A.DC. 붉은병꽃나무 MSS-190020 I,O,FC
Weigela subsessilis (Nakai) L.H.Bailey 병꽃나무 MSP-200233 Endemic E,M,O,R,FC
Adoxaceae 연복초과
Adoxa moschatellina L. 연복초 MSP-200234 O
Valerianaceae 마타리과
Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. ex Trevir. 마타리 MSP-200235 E,M,O,R,FC
Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss. 뚝갈 MSS-200068 E,M,I,O,R
Valeriana fauriei Briq. 쥐오줌풀 MSS-190213 E,M,F,I,O,R
Campanulaceae 초롱꽃과
Adenophora divaricata Franch. & Sav. 넓은잔대 MSP-200236 E,M,O
Adenophora remotiflora (Siebold & Zucc.) Miq. 모시대 MSP-200237 E,M,O
Adenophora triphylla var. japonica (Regel) H.Hara 잔대 MSP-200238 E,M
Adenophora verticillata Fisch. 층층잔대 MSS-200065 E,M
Asyneuma japonicum (Miq.) Briq. 영아자 MSP-200239 E,O
Codonopsis lanceolata (Siebold & Zucc.) Trautv. 더덕 MSP-200240 E,M,I,O,FC
Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A.DC. 도라지 MSP-200241 E,M,I,O,R
Compositae 국화과
Achillea alpina L. 톱풀 MSP-200242 E,M,R
Adenocaulon himalaicum Edgew. 멸가치 MSP-200243 E,M,I,O,R
Ainsliaea acerifolia Sch.Bip. 단풍취 MSS-200002 E,M,O
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. 돼지풀 MSS-190229 N
Artemisia capillaris Thunb. 사철쑥 MSS-190248 E(P),M(P),R,FC
Artemisia dubia Wall. 참쑥 MSP-200244 E,M,FC
Artemisia feddei H.Lév. & Vaniot 뺑쑥 MSP-200245 E,M,FC
Artemisia gmelini Weber ex Stechm. 더위지기 MSP-200246 E(P),M(P),F,FC
Artemisia japonica Thunb. 제비쑥 MSP-200247 E,M,I,R,FC
Artemisia keiskeana Miq. 맑은대쑥 MSS-200057 E,M,F,R,FC
Artemisia princeps Pamp. MSS-190018 E,M,I,R
Artemisia rubripes Nakai 덤불쑥 MSP-200248 E,M,FC
Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom. 넓은잎외잎쑥 MSS-190186 E,M,FC
Aster ageratoides Turcz. 까실쑥부쟁이 MSS-200017 E,M,O
Aster hispidus Thunb. 갯쑥부쟁이 MSP-200249 E,M,R
Aster incisus Fisch. 가새쑥부쟁이 MSP-200250 E,M,O
Aster meyendorfii (Regel & Maack) Voss 개쑥부쟁이 MSS-200058 E,R
Aster pilosus Willd. 미국쑥부쟁이 MSS-190044 N E,O
Aster scaber Thunb. 참취 MSS-200013 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Aster tataricus L.f. 개미취 MSP-200251 E,M,O,R,FC
Atractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC. 삽주 MSP-200252 E,M,I,FC
Bidens bipinnata L. 도깨비바늘 MSP-200253 E,M,FC
Bidens frondosa L. 미국가막사리 MSS-190051 N E,M,I,FC
Bidens parviflora Willd. 까치발 MSP-200254 E,M
Carduus crispus L. 지느러미엉겅퀴 MSP-200255 N E,M
Carpesium abrotanoides L. 담배풀 MSP-200256 E(P),M(P)
Carpesium divaricatum Siebold & Zucc. 긴담배풀 MSS-190017 E,M
Carpesium macrocephalum Franch. & Sav. 여우오줌 MSP-200257 E,M
Carpesium triste Maxim. 두메담배풀 MSP-200258 E,M
Cirsium japonicum var. maackii (Maxim.) Matsum. 엉겅퀴 MSP-200259 E,M,I,R,FC
Cirsium pendulum Fisch. ex DC. 큰엉겅퀴 MSS-190223 E,M
Cirsium setidens (Dunn) Nakai 고려엉겅퀴 MSP-200260 Endemic, Ⅰ E,M
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist 망초 MSP-200261 N E,M
Crepidiastrum chelidoniifolium (Makino) Pak & Kawano 까치고들빼기 MSS-200040 E,M
Crepidiastrum denticulatum (Houtt.) Pak & Kawano 이고들빼기 MSS-200051 E,M,FC
Crepidiastrum sonchifolium (Bunge) Pak & Kawano 고들빼기 MSP-200262 E,M,FC
Dendranthema boreale (Makino) Ling ex Kitam. 산국 MSS-190052 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Dendranthema sichotense Tzvelev 바위구절초 MSP-200263 E,M,O,FC
Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum (Maxim.) Kitam. 구절초 MSS-190272 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Erechtites hieracifolia Raf. 붉은서나물 MSS-190002 N E,I,FC
Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. 개망초 MSP-200264 N E,M,I
Eupatorium japonicum Thunb. 등골나물 MSS-190249 E,M,I,O,FC
Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) S.F.Blake 털별꽃아재비 MSP-200265 N E
Hemistepta lyrata Bunge 지칭개 MSP-200266 E,M,I,FC
Hieracium umbellatum L. 조밥나물 MSP-200267 E,M,O,FC
Inula britannica var. japonica (Thunb.) Franch. & Sav. 금불초 MSP-200268 E,M,O,R,FC
Ixeridium dentatum (Thunb.) Tzvelev 씀바귀 MSP-200269 E,M,I,FC
Ixeris chinensis (Thunb.) Nakai 노랑선씀바귀 MSP-200270 E,M
Ixeris polycephala Cass. 벌씀바귀 MSP-200271 E,M,FC
Lactuca indica L. 왕고들빼기 MSS-190040 E,M,FC
Lactuca raddeana Maxim. 산씀바귀 MSP-200272 E,M,FC
Lactuca triangulata Maxim. 두메고들빼기 MSP-200273 E,M,FC
Leibnitzia anandria (L.) Turcz. 솜나물 MSP-200274 E,M,O,FC
Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz. 곰취 MSP-200275 E,M,O,R
Parasenecio firmus (Kom.) Y.L.Chen 병풍쌈 MSS-190189 Rare(LC), Ⅳ E
Petasites japonicus (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. 머위 MSP-200276 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Picris hieracioides var. koreana Kitam. 쇠서나물 MSP-200277 E,M,FC
Saussurea gracilis Maxim. 은분취 MSP-200278 E,M,O,FC
Saussurea grandifolia Maxim. 서덜취 MSS-190253 E,M,FC
Senecio vulgaris L. 개쑥갓 MSS-190019 N E,M,I
Serratula coronata var. insularis (Iljin) Kitam. 산비장이 MSP-200279 E,O,R
Sigesbeckia glabrescens (Makino) Makino 진득찰 MSP-200280 E,M,FC
Sigesbeckia pubescens (Makino) Makino 털진득찰 MSP-200281 E,M,FC
Solidago virgaurea subsp. asiatica Kitam. ex Hara 미역취 MSP-200282 E,M,I,O
Syneilesis palmata (Thunb.) Maxim. 우산나물 MSS-200016 E,M,O,R,FC
Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai 수리취 MSS-190021 E,M,I,R,FC
Taraxacum coreanum Nakai 흰민들레 MSS-190217 E,M,I
Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. 털민들레 MSP-200283 E,M
Taraxacum officinale Weber 서양민들레 MSS-190130 N E,M,I
Tephroseris kirilowii (Turcz. ex DC.) Holub 솜방망이 MSS-190126 E,M,O,FC
Youngia japonica (L.) DC. 뽀리뱅이 MSP-200284 E,M
Liliaceae 백합과
Allium macrostemon Bunge 산달래 MSP-200285 E,M,FC
Allium monanthum Maxim. 달래 MSP-200286 E,M
Allium thunbergii G.Don 산부추 MSP-200287 E,M,I,O,R
Asparagus schoberioides Kunth 비짜루 MSS-190028 E,M,I,R
Convallaria keiskei Miq. 은방울꽃 MSP-200288 M(P),F,O,R
Disporum smilacinum A.Gray 애기나리 MSS-200001 E(P),M(P),O,R,FC
Disporum viridescens (Maxim.) Nakai 큰애기나리 MSP-200289 E(P),M(P),O,FC
Erythronium japonicum (Balrer) Decne. 얼레지 MSP-200290 E,M,I,O,R
Heloniopsis koreana Fuse, N.S.Lee & M.N.Tamura 처녀치마 MSP-200291 Endemic, Ⅱ O,R
Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. 원추리 MSP-200292 E(P),M(P),F,I,O,R,FC
Hemerocallis hakuunensis Nakai 백운산원추리 MSP-200293 Endemic E,M,O,FC
Hosta capitata (Koidz.) Nakai 일월비비추 MSS-190119 E,M,O,FC
Hosta longipes (Franch. & Sav.) Matsum. 비비추 MSP-200294 E,M,R,FC
Lilium amabile Palib. 털중나리 MSP-200295 E,M,I,O
Lilium distichum Nakai ex Kamib. 말나리 MSP-200296 Rare(LC), Ⅲ E,M,I,O
Lilium tsingtauense Gilg 하늘말나리 MSP-200297 E,M,O,FC
Lloydia triflora (Ledeb.) Baker 나도개감채 MSS-190098 Rare(LC), Ⅱ E,M
Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F.W.Schmidt 두루미꽃 MSP-200298 E,M,O
Paris verticillata M.Bieb. 삿갓나물 MSP-200299 E(P),M(P),O
Polygonatum acuminatifolium Kom. 종둥굴레
Polygonatum humile Fisch. ex Maxim. 각시둥굴레 MSP-200300 E,M,O,FC
Polygonatum inflatum Kom. 퉁둥굴레 MSS-190112 E,M,O,FC
Polygonatum involucratum (Franch. & Sav.) Maxim. 용둥굴레 MSS-190266 E,M,O,FC
Polygonatum lasianthum Maxim. 죽대 MSP-200301 E,M,O,FC
Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum (Miq.) Ohwi 둥굴레 MSS-200053 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Scilla scilloides (Lindl.) Druce 무릇 MSP-200302 E(P),M(P),O,R
Smilacina japonica A.Gray 풀솜대 MSP-200303 E,M,O
Smilax china L. 청미래덩굴 MSP-200304 E,M,I,O,FC
Smilax nipponica Miq. 선밀나물 MSS-190215 E,M,O,FC
Smilax sieboldii Miq. 청가시덩굴 MSP-200305 E,M,I,O,FC
Streptopus ovalis (Ohwi) F.T.Wang & Y.C.Tang 금강애기나리 MSS-190125 Rare(LC)
Veratrum maackii var. japonicum (Baker) T.Schmizu 여로 MSP-200306 M(P)
Dioscoreaceae 마과
Dioscorea batatas Decne. MSP-200307 E,M,O,FC
Dioscorea nipponica Makino 부채마 MSP-200308 E,M,O,FC
Iridaceae 붓꽃과
Iris rossii Baker 각시붓꽃 MSP-200309 M,O,FC
Iris sanguinea Donn ex Horn 붓꽃 MSP-200310 M,O,R,FC
Juncaceae 골풀과
Juncus effusus var. decipiens Buchenau 골풀 MSP-200311 E,M,I,O,R,FC
Juncus papillosus Franch. & Sav. 청비녀골풀 MSP-200312 M
Juncus tenuis Willd. 길골풀 MSP-200313 FC
Luzula capitata (Miq.) Miq. 꿩의밥 MSP-200314 E,M,R
Commelinaceae 닭의장풀과
Commelina communis L. 닭의장풀 MSP-200315 E,M,FC
Gramineae 벼과
Agropyron ciliare (Trin.) Franch. 속털개밀 MSP-200316 I,R,FC
Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino 조개풀 MSS-190005 M,I,FC
Arundinella hirta (Thunb.) Koidz. MSS-190224 O,R,FC
Bromus japonicus Thunb. 참새귀리 MSS-190228 M,FC
Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth 실새풀 MSS-200042 O,R,FC
Diarrhena fauriei (Hack.) Ohwi 광릉용수염 MSS-190155 FC
Diarrhena japonica (Franch. & Sav.) Franch. & Sav. 용수염 R,FC
Diarrhena mandshurica Maxim. 껍질용수염 MSP-200317 FC
Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel. 바랭이 MSP-200318 M,R,FC
Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P.Beauv. 돌피 MSS-190007 E,M
Eragrostis cilianensis (Bellardi) Link ex Janch. 참새그령 MSS-190210 I,O,R,FC
Glyceria leptolepis Ohwi 왕미꾸리광이 MSP-200319 FC
Hierochloe odorata (L.) P.Beauv. 향모 MSS-190136 E,M,F,O
Isachne globosa (Thunb.) Kuntze 기장대풀 MSP-200320 FC
Milium effusum L. 나도겨이삭 MSS-190226 FC
Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens (Andersson) Rendle 억새 MSS-190235 E,M,I,R,FC
Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) P.Beauv. 주름조개풀 MSS-190025 FC
Panicum bisulcatum Thunb. 개기장 MSP-200321 E,I,FC
Phragmites japonica Steud. 달뿌리풀 MSP-200322 M,I,R,FC
Setaria glauca (L.) P.Beauv. 금강아지풀 MSS-190001 FC
Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv. 강아지풀 MSS-190041 E,M,FC
Spodipogon cotulifer (Thunb.) Hack. 기름새 MSP-200323 I,FC
Spodipogon sibiricus Trin. 큰기름새 MSS-190006 FC
Stipa pekinensis Hance 나래새 MSS-200022 FC
Trisetum bifidum (Thunb.) Ohwi 잠자리피 MSP-200324 O,FC
Araceae 천남성과
Arisaema amurense Maxim. 둥근잎천남성 MSS-190260 M(P),FC
Arisaema heterophyllum Blume 두루미천남성 MSP-200325 Rare(LC), Ⅰ M
Arisaema peninsulae Nakai 점박이천남성 MSS-200025 M(P),FC
Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breitenb. 반하 MSP-200352 M(P)
Cyperaceae 사초과
Carex augustinowiczii Menish. ex Korsh. 북사초 MSP-200326 R
Carex bostrychostigma Maxim. 길뚝사초 MSP-200327 R,FC
Carex breviculmis R.Br. 청사초 MSS-190140 R,FC
Carex ciliatomarginata Nakai 털대사초 MSP-200328 R,FC
Carex dimorpholepis Steud. 이삭사초 MSP-200329 R,FC
Carex dispalata Boott 삿갓사초 MSP-200330 I,O,R,FC
Carex erythrobasis H.Lév. & Vaniot 한라사초 MSS-190083 Endemic, Ⅱ R,FC
Carex forficula Franch. & Sav. 산뚝사초 MSS-190060 R,FC
Carex gifuensis Franch. 애기감둥사초 MSP-200331 R,FC
Carex heterolepis Bunge 산비늘사초 MSS-190059 FC
Carex humilis var. nana (H.Lév. & Vaniot) Ohwi 가는잎그늘사초 MSP-200332 R,FC
Carex jaluensis Kom. 참삿갓사초 MSP-200333 R,FC
Carex japonica Thunb. 개찌버리사초 MSS-190192 R,FC
Carex kamagariensis K. Okamoto 좀목포사초 MSS-190132
Carex laevissima Nakai 애괭이사초 MSP-200334 FC
Carex lanceolata Boott 그늘사초 MSP-200335 M,R,FC
Carex leiorhyncha C.A.Mey. 산괭이사초 MSP-200336 FC
Carex miyabei Franch. 융단사초 MSP-200337
Carex neurocarpa Maxim. 괭이사초 MSP-200338 O,FC
Carex okamotoi Ohwi 지리대사초 MSP-200339 Endemic, Ⅰ R,FC
Carex onoei Franch. & Sav. 바늘사초 MSS-190212 R,FC
Carex planiculmis Kom. 그늘흰사초 MSP-200340 FC
Carex polyschoena H.Lév. & Vaniot 가지청사초 MSS-190191 FC
Carex sabynensis Less. ex Kunth 실청사초 MSS-190057 FC
Carex siderosticta Hance 대사초 MSS-190239 M,R,FC
Cyperus amuricus Maxim. 방동사니 MSP-200341 M
Orchidaceae 난초과
Cephalanthera longibracteata Blume 은대난초 MSS-200054 E,O
Liparis krameri Franch. & Sav. 나나벌이난초 MSP-200342 O
Liparis kumokiri F.Maek. 옥잠난초 MSS-200009 O

Z1: Collection & Photograph number: MSS (MunSu-Specimen), MSP (MunSu-Photo).

y2: ①Rare Plant(Forest service, 2008 / EN ~ DD), ②Endemic Plant (Chung et al., 2017), ③Floristics special plant(Ministry of environment, 2018 / Ⅴ ~ Ⅰ), ④Naturalized Plant (Lee et al., 2011).

x3: Uses of Plant: ①E[Edible / (p) Edible caution], ②M[Medicinal / (P)Medicinal caution], ③F(Flavor), I(Industrial), ④O(Ornamental), ⑤R(Restoration), ⑥FC(Feed/Compost).

Acknowledgements

This study was carried out with the support of one of the research project (2020-BD-OB-02-05) results of the Baekdudaegan National Arboretum, Korea Arboreta and Gardens Institute.

References

1
Byeon, J.G., J.K. Shin, S.H. Oh and D.K. Kim. 2016. The plant distribution of protected area for forest genetic resource conservation in the Korea National Baekdudaegan Arboretum, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea. Korean J. Plant Res. 29 (2):204-224 (in Korean with English abstract). 10.7732/kjpr.2016.29.2.204
2
Cho, Y.H., J.H. Kim and S.H. Park. 2016. Grasses and Sedges in South Korea. Geobook, Seoul, Korea. pp. 1-528 (in Korean).
3
Chung, B.K., S.G. Gang, J.G. Bae, J.H. Kim, J.W. Sung, G.S. Kim, S.Y. Lee, H.G. Youn, J.H. Im, Y.S. Lee and J.W. Jang. 2015. A study on the management and use of plant resource in Baekdudaegan arboretum -focused on arboretem core area, Munsu and Okseok Mountain-. J. Korean Env. Res. Tech. 18(6):111-133 (in Korean with English abstract). 10.13087/kosert.2015.18.6.111
4
Chung, G.Y., K.S. Chang, J.M. Chung, H.J. Choi, W.K. Paik and J.O. Hyun. 2017. A checklist of endemic plants on the Korean Peninsula. Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 47(3):264-288 (in Korean with English abstract). 10.11110/kjpt.2017.47.3.264
5
Jang, H.D., H.S. Leem, S.H. Han and S.K. So. 2019. Floristic study of Juwangsan national park in Korea. Korean J. Plant Res. 32(4):379-406 (in Korean with English abstract).
6
Jeong, S. 2019. A study on the distributional characteristics of vascular plants in inland of Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. Department of Plant Medicine, Ph.D. Thesis, The Graduate School, Andong National Univ., Korea. pp. 1-1153 (in Korean with English abstract).
7
Kim, C.H, M.O. Moon, J.K. Ahn, I.C. Hwang, S.H. Lee, S.S. Choi, J.H. Lee, H.M. Bum, C.G. Kim and J.Y. Cha. 2018. Floristic Target Species in Korea. National Institute of Ecology. Seocheon, Korea. pp. 1-728 (in Korean).
8
Kim, H.J. and C.W. Yun. 2009. Vascular plants of Mt. Munsu and Mt. Okseok. Korean J. Environ. Biol. 27(2):164-175 (in Korean with English abstract).
9
Korea Forest Service. 2014. The assessment for vascular plant resources and the reclassification of their usefulness from Korea. Korea Forest Service, Daejeon, Korea (in Korean).
10
Korea Forest Service. 2017. White Paper of Baekdudaegan National Arboretum: 2008-2016. Daejeon, Korea. pp. 1-807 (in Korean).
11
Korea Meteorological Administration. 2020. Meteorological data open portal of the Korea Meteorological Administration. https://data.kma.go.kr/cmmn/main.do. (Accessed Jan. 2021).
12
Korea National Arboretum. 2004. Illustrated Grasses of Korea. Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea. pp. 1-520 (in Korean).
13
Korea National Arboretum. 2008. Rare Plants Data Book in Korea. Korea National Arboretum. Pocheon, Korea. pp. 1-332 (in Korean).
14
Korea National Arboretum. 2010. The Comprehensive Report on the Distribution of Rare and Endemic Plants. Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea. pp. 1-366 (in Korean).
15
Korea National Arboretum. 2017. Checklist of Vascular Plants in Korea. Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea. pp. 1-1016 (in Korean).
16
Korea National Arboretum. 2019. Illustrated Juncaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Typhaceae of Korea. Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea. pp. 1-255 (in Korean).
17
Korea National Arboretum. 2020. Forest of Korea (Ⅵ) Biogeography of Korea: flora and vegetation 2020. Comprehensive planning Sumeungil, Korea. pp. 42-64 (in Korean).
18
Lee, C.S. and K.H. Lee. 2015. Pteridophytes of Korea: Lycophytes & Ferns. Geobook, Seoul, Korea. pp. 1-491 (in Korean).
19
Lee, T.B. 2003. Coloured Flora of Korea, Vol Ⅰ, Ⅱ. Hayangmunsa, Seoul, Korea. pp. 1-1824 (in Korean).
20
Lee, W.T. 1996. Coloured Standard Illustrations of Korean Plants. Academy Publishing Co., Seoul, Korea. pp. 1-855 (in Korean).
21
Lee, W.T. and Y.J. Yim. 1978. Studies on the distribution of vascular plants in the Korean peninsula. Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 8:1-33 (in Korean).
22
Lee, Y.M., S.H. Park, S.Y. Jung, S.H. Oh and J.C. Yang. 2011. Study on the current status of naturalized plants in South Korea. Korean J. Pl. Taxon 41(1):87-101 (in Korean with English abstract). 10.11110/kjpt.2011.41.1.087
23
Lee, Y.N. 2006. New Flora of Korea, Vol. I, II. Kyohak publishing Co., Ltd, Seoul, Korea. pp. 1-1860 (in Korean).
24
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. 2016. The national atlas of Korea Ⅱ. Suwon, Korea. pp. 1-242 (in Korean).
25
Park, S.H. 2009. New Illustrations and Photographs of Naturalized Plants of Korea. Ilchokak. Seoul, Korea. pp. 1-575 (in Korean).
26
Son, Y.H., S.H. Park, H.N. Seo, W.G. Park and H.J. Son. 2021. The flora of Mt. Hwang-ak and Jikjisa, temple forest in Baekdudaegan. Korean J. Plant Res. 34(2):115-143 (in Korean with English abstract).
27
You, J.H., J.H. Ra, H.J. Cho and J.N. Ku. 2009. Practical plan and vascular plants around construct-reserved site of ecological forest in Baekdudaegan. Korean Env. Res. Tech. 12(5):42-58 (in Korean with English abstract).
28
Yoo, K.O. 2013. Korean Violets. Jisungsa, Seoul, Korea. pp. 1-344 (in Korean).
페이지 상단으로 이동하기