• Research Article

    Phylogenetic Analysis on Wild Cordyceps Collected from Miryang Region of South Korea

    밀양근교에서 채집한 야생 동충하초 계통의 PCR 산물에 근거한 계통 유전학적 연구

    Hyeancheal Park, Sangmong Lee and Namsook Park

    박현철, 이상몽, 박남숙

    The phylogenetic relationships among thirty-two strains (P1∼P32; including Cordyceps sp., Paecilomyces sp., Beauveria sp., Aranthomyces sp., Isaria sp. and Himenostilbe sp ... + READ MORE
    The phylogenetic relationships among thirty-two strains (P1∼P32; including Cordyceps sp., Paecilomyces sp., Beauveria sp., Aranthomyces sp., Isaria sp. and Himenostilbe sp.) in Miryang region located in the southern part of Korea, were investigated based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. A fragment of ITS region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primer pairs ITS1 and ITS4. After obtained same size of PCR products from various strains, we cloned them into a pGEM-T easy vector to determine their sequences. BLAST analyses of the nucleotide sequence ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 gene fragments revealed the identity and their phylogenetic relationship. Among 32 strains isolated from Miryang region, Cordyceps militaris was shared 100% sequences with Genbank (AY49191, EU825999, AY491992), while some species are not shared perfectly with reported sequences. For example, strain P17 (P. tenuipes in Ulju-gun Gaji Mountain) has some differences among the other strains of P. tenuipes (Miryang-si Jocheon-eup, Miryang-si Gaji Mountain) and those of gene bank. We conclude that ITS analyses with strains in the suburbs of Miryang in this study can be effectively used as a tool for classification, evaluation and collection of the natural eco-type genetic resources. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Enhancing in vitro Growth of Bulbs for Mass Propagation of Lily Germplasm
    Jae-young Song, Young-yi Lee, Jung-yoon Yi, Jung-ro Lee and Mun-sup Yoon
    Plants regenerated from in vitro cultures carry chromosomal variations, especially in long-term culture. Reducing the duration of plant tissue culture is one ... + READ MORE
    Plants regenerated from in vitro cultures carry chromosomal variations, especially in long-term culture. Reducing the duration of plant tissue culture is one of the ways to reduce genetic and epigenetic changes. In this study, we reduced the duration of long-term culture and repeat subculture using small bulblets derived from bulb scales in two lily cultivars. The adventitious bulblets derived from bulb-scale tissue were cultured on three different media containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 1 g/L Charcoal, MS medium containing 0.3 ㎎/L IAA and 0.4 ㎎/L BA hormone with or without Charcoal, respectively. About seven weeks later, the number of newly propagated multiple shoots in the two media, A and B media, showed little differentiation. Compared to both media, the number of propagated multiple shoots increased 5-fold in MS medium containing 0.3 ㎎/L IAA and 0.4 ㎎/L BA hormone without Charcoal (C medium). The number of propagated multiple shoots ranged from 5 to 6 and 4 to 6 with an average of 5 in TropicalPink and GreenStar cultivars, respectively. The flow cytometric measurements indicated no variation in the ploidy level between control and in vitro propagated plants. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Anti-inflammatory Effects of Hemistepta lyrata Bunge in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells through Regulation of MAPK Signaling Pathway

    LPS로 유도된 RAW 264.7 대식세포의 염증반응에서 MAPK 신호경로 조절을 통한 지칭개 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과

    Chul Hwan Kim, Young-Kyung Lee, Jin-Woo Jeong, Buyng Su Hwang, Yong Tae Jeong, Yong Taek Oh, Pyo Yun Cho and Chang-Hee Kang

    김철환, 이영경, 정진우, 황병수, 정용태, 오영택, 조표연, 강창희

    Hemistepta lyrata Bunge (HL) has been used as a folk remedy to treat cancer, inflammation, bleeding, hemorrhoids and fever, and leaves and ... + READ MORE
    Hemistepta lyrata Bunge (HL) has been used as a folk remedy to treat cancer, inflammation, bleeding, hemorrhoids and fever, and leaves and young shoots have been used as famine food. Nevertheless, the biological activities and underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects remain unclear. In this study, it was undertaken to explore the functions of the aerial part of HL as a suppressor of inflammation by using RAW 264.7 cells. As immune response parameters, the productions of as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cytokines such tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were evaluated. Although the release of TNF-α remained unchanged in HL-treated RAW 264.7 cells, the productions of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 were significantly increased at concentrations with no cytotoxicity. Furthermore, HL significantly attenuated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway including decreasing the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Collectively, this study provides evidence that HL inhibits the production of major pro-inflammatory molecules in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via suppression of ERK and P38 MAPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of HL may be attributed partly to its ability to modulate immune functions in macrophages. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Anti-inflammatory Effect of Berchemia berchemiaefolia Leaves through Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Activation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    망개나무 추출물의 NF-κB 및 MAPK 신호전달 억제를 통한 항염증 효과

    Da Som Kim, Hyun Ji Eo, Yeongyeong Kang and Gwang Hun Park

    김다솜, 어현지, 강연경, 박광훈

    Berchemia berchemiaefolia (Makino) Koidz. is found not only in korea, but also in japan and is known as a rare plant all ... + READ MORE
    Berchemia berchemiaefolia (Makino) Koidz. is found not only in korea, but also in japan and is known as a rare plant all over the world. In this study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory effect of B. berchemiaefolia (Makino) Koidz. leaves (BBK-L) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. BBK-L inhibited the generation of NO through the suppression of iNOS experession. BBK-L attenuated the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 induced by LPS. BBK-L decreased LPS-mediated IκB-α degradation inhibite which resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, BBK-L suppressed ERK1/2, JNK phosphorylation induced by LPS. BBK-L showed anti-inflammatory effect through blocking the generation of the inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, COX-2 , TNF-α , IL-1β, IL-6 via the inhibiting of NF-κB and MAPK signaling activation. These results suggests that BBK-L may have great potential for the development of anti-inflammatory drug to treat acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Whitening and Antioxidant Effects of Extracts from Angelica gigas Nakai Thin Root

    참당귀 세미 추출물의 미백 및 항산화 효과

    Sang-Hoon Lee, Jeong-Yong Park, Kyung Hye Seo, Jang Nam Choi, Yoon-Jeong Lee, Youn-Ho Moon, Mok Hur, Woo Tae Park, Yun Chan Huh, Jae-Ki Chang and Sung Cheol Koo

    이상훈, 박정용, 서경혜, 최장남, 이윤정, 문윤호, 허목, 박우태, 허윤찬, 장재기, 구성철

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is a perennial plant belonging to the family Apiaceae. Its root has been utilized as a traditional medicine ... + READ MORE
    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is a perennial plant belonging to the family Apiaceae. Its root has been utilized as a traditional medicine especially in Korea. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential use of extracts from AGN root parts as a cosmetic material. The dried AGN roots are divided into body (B), thick root (TkR), medium root(MR) and thin root (TnR) according to their diameter before cutting into medicine. B, TkR and MR of AGN are combined and used as medicinal herbs (MH). The extracts from AGN each root part (B, TkR, MR, TnR, MH) were used to test the effect on cell viability using MTS assay and to examine inhibitory effect on melanin accumulation in B16F10 melanoma cells. All extracts (50 - 200 ㎍/mL) from the each root part did not affect the cell viability. And inhibitory effect of all root extracts (200 ㎍/mL) on melanin accumulation was 12-19%. Especially, TnR showed similar inhibitory effect on melanin accumulation to MH. In addition, DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activity were higher in the TnR extract compared to MH. This study showed that the TnR extract exhibit high inhibitory effect on melanin accumulation and antioxidant activity compared to MH, suggesting that TnR extract has potential as a cosmetic ingredient. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Comparison of Growth Characterisitics, Asiaticoside Content and Antioxidant Activities of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

    병풀의 생육 특성, Asiaticoside 함량 및 항산화 활성 비교

    Jang Nam Choi, Myeong Won Oh, Hee Jung Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Jin Tae Jeong, Yun Ji Lee, Jae Ki Chang and Chun Geon Park

    최장남, 오명원, 이희정, 이정훈, 정진태, 이윤지, 장재기, 박춘근

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a medicinal plant containing madecassic acid, triterpenoids and asiaticoside, and has a wound healing effect. However, since ... + READ MORE
    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a medicinal plant containing madecassic acid, triterpenoids and asiaticoside, and has a wound healing effect. However, since it grows only in some regions of Korea, it is necessary to breed stable varieties. In this study, it were analyzed for the growth characteristics, asiaticoside, anxiodant components and 2,2-diphenyl-1picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavening activity of C. asiatica collected from domestic natural habitat (Hapcheon, Gyeongnam). In the growth characteristics of each resource, CA9 and CA10 were superior in characteristics of aerial part and in dry weight. In asiaticoside content analysis, CA5 and CA3 were high with 53.96 ㎎/g and 52.40 ㎎/g, respectively. CA12 showed the possibility of development because the resource showed high in total flavonoid (7.3 ㎎/g), total polyphenol (10.64 ㎎/g) and DPPH activity (11.96 ㎎ AAE/g) among other resources. However, it is necessary to select a resource suitable for each characteristic of C. asiatica and to study charateristics through additional resources collection since the excellent growth characteristics of the collected resources do not necessarily coincide with the content and antioxidant activities. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Development of HPLC Method for Quality Assessment of Marker Components in Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba

    백출(Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba)의 품질평가를 위한 지표성분 분석법 평가

    Jae-Woong Lee, Joon-Hee Kim, Byoung-Man Kang and Byung-Kwan Ahn

    이재웅, 김준희, 강병만, 안병관

    Homogenization of quality was important in order to use herbal medicines as pharmaceuticals. To solve this problem, it was important to establish ... + READ MORE
    Homogenization of quality was important in order to use herbal medicines as pharmaceuticals. To solve this problem, it was important to establish quality standards. Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba has no quantitative method in the Korean Pharmacopoeia. Thus, we have researched to improve the quality evaluation method of Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba with an HPLC. Atractylenolide Ⅲ and atracylodin were selected as potential marker compounds. This analytical procedure was subject to validation. According to validation guideline of South Korea’s Ministry of Food and Drugs Safety, the specificity, linearity, precision, range, quantitative limits, detection limits and accuracy were measured. Because the specificity, linearity, precision, range, quantitative limits, detection limits and accuracy meet criteria of the guideline, the analytic method was validated. With this analysis, Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba and Atractylodis Rhizoma analyzed. As a result, both atractylenolide Ⅲ and atracylodin appear to be suitable standard compounds. it confirmed that tractylodes Rhizome, similar to Atractylodes Rhizome Alba, could be distinguished. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Development of Artificial Seeds by Encapsulation Zygotic Embryo of Apple (Malus pumila var. domestica )

    사과의 접합자배 encapsulation에 의한 인공종자 개발

    Pil Son Choi

    최필선

    To study for germination rate of apple artificial seeds encapsulated with 2% alginic acids, the rates of germination for artificial seeds of ... + READ MORE
    To study for germination rate of apple artificial seeds encapsulated with 2% alginic acids, the rates of germination for artificial seeds of various embryos with partial elimination of cotyledon measured by adding 80 ㎎/L gibberellic acid or/and nutritional media. The germination rate of artificial seeds produced embryo with 3/4 cotyledon (3/4 CE), embryo with 1/2 cotyledon (1/2 CE), embryo with 1/4 cotyledon (1/4 CE), and embryo without cotyledon (NCE) were gradually decreased with compare to normal embryo, but it’s considerably recovered on the alginic acid containing MS solution or/and 80 ㎎/L GA3. In special, the low frequency (55.81%) of germination for artificial seeds of 1/2 cotyledon embryo with alginic acid was increased by treatment with combination of alginic acid, 3% sucrose, and 80 ㎎/L gibberellic acid (98.74%). In case of embryo without cotyledon, the low frequency of embryo without cotyledon (24.44%) in alginic acid almost recovered to 82.45% in alginic acid with MS solution and 80 ㎎/L gibberellic acid. The results shown that the germination of embryo was decreased by the removal of cotyledon, and demonstrated that the low rate of germination could be considerably increased by adding GA3 (80 ㎎/L) or/and nutrition. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Growth Characteristics of Ligusticum chuanxing Hort. according to Soil and Meteorological Environment by Each Cultivation

    재배지별 토양 및 기상환경에 따른 토천궁의 생육특성

    Dae Hui Jeong, Ki Yoon Kim, Hong Woo Park, Chung Ryul Jung, Hyun Jun Kim and Kwon Seok Jeon

    정대희, 김기윤, 박홍우, 정충렬, 김현준, 전권석

    This study aimed to identify regions with a suitable growth environment for Ligusticum chuanxing Hort. and use basic data to identify appropriate ... + READ MORE
    This study aimed to identify regions with a suitable growth environment for Ligusticum chuanxing Hort. and use basic data to identify appropriate cultivation and stable production strategies. Four main areas of cultivation were selected and the relationship between growth characteristics (aboveground and underground parts) and weather and soil environment was analyzed. Overall growth was found to be significantly higher in Pyeongchang. Atmospheric and soil temperatures showed a significant negative correlation with overall height from the ground, stem diameter, and growth characteristics of the underground part; leaf length and width were positively correlated. As insolation increased, the growth characteristics, excluding leaf size, showed a positive correlation. Soil characteristics such as organic matter (OM), N, P, and K showed negative correlations with the overall height of the upper part and growth characteristics of the underground part, including stem diameter. Analysis of roots indicated that OM, N, P, and K were essential and were absorbed through the soil. The OM, N, P, and K values in the Pyeongchang area, which showed the optimal growth, were lower than those in other areas. It is believed that these results can be used to select cultivation sites for L. chuanxing and establish cultivation technology in future. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Cultivation of Hosta minor ‘Cheongnarae’ with Thick Leaves and Light-Colored Petals

    잎이 강건하고 화색이 엷은 좀비비추 ‘청나래’ 육성

    Hye Jin Oh, Jong Suk Lee, Jin-Ho Kim, Sang Yong Kim and Gang Uk Suh

    오혜진, 이종석, 김진호, 김상용, 서강욱

    We report a technique for obtaining seeds of ‘Cheongnarae’ (a variety of Hosta minor cultivated at the Korea National Arboretum in 2019 ... + READ MORE
    We report a technique for obtaining seeds of ‘Cheongnarae’ (a variety of Hosta minor cultivated at the Korea National Arboretum in 2019) by artificial crossing of H. minor , collected from Jeju Island, as the female parent and H. minor ‘Krossa Regal’, cultivated outside Korea, as the male parent. Among the individuals obtained after sowing, those that showed different morphological characteristics, such as leaf shape and color, were selected. Among these individuals, those with thick leaves and light-colored flowers were further selected. Vegetative propagation and cultivation steps were repeated for evaluation of the characteristics. ‘Cheongnarae’ has relatively thicker leaves and a darker color (RHS 137A) than the control variety ‘Black Hills’ and has wings at the point where the petiole meets the leaf blade. The shape of the leaf blade edge is clearly sinuous, and the flower color is close to white (White N155B). ‘Cheongnarae’ cultivated in this way can be used for pot plant or gardening. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Classification of Garlic Germplasms Based on Agronomic Characteristics and Multivariative Analysis

    마늘 유전자원의 작물학적 특성과 다변량 분석에 의한 품종군 분류

    Jae Sun Lee, Young Uk Park, Jae Hyun Jeong, Young Hee Kwon, Who Bong Chang and Hee Du Lee

    이재선, 박영욱, 정재현, 권영희, 장후봉, 이희두

    This research was conducted to investigate the genetic diversity and select useful accession with agronomic characteristics of garlic (Allium sativum L.). germplasms ... + READ MORE
    This research was conducted to investigate the genetic diversity and select useful accession with agronomic characteristics of garlic (Allium sativum L.). germplasms at Garlic Research Institute in Chungbuk Agricultural Research and Extension Service. Morphological diversity and relationships among 160 germplasms collected from 26 countries were assessed by methods of clustering and principal component analysis. Among 11 types of leaves and bulbs characteristics, emergence days of leaf showed the highest variation with coefficient of variation of 84.8%, and the bulb weight and the number of scales showed higher variability with 24.3%. Correlation analysis based on 11 quantitative traits showed that bulb weight and bulb length have very high positive correlation with bulb quantity. Plant height, leaf length, and number of leaves showed positive correlation with bulb weight as collections with better performance in growth produced large bulb with higher quality. The cluster analysis based on 5 principal components generated 6 clusters with an average distance of 1.6 among clusters. Domestic genetic resources were the largest with 36 species (22.5%) in group Ⅱ. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    Two Unrecorded Alien Plants of Korean Peninsula: Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. (Urticaceae) and Elsholtzia griffithii Hook. f. (Lamiaceae)

    한반도 미기록 외래식물: 작은잎물통이(쐐기풀과)와 남방향유(꿀풀과)

    Jeong-Ki Hong, Jung-Hyun Kim, Yu-Ri Kim and Jin-Seok Kim

    홍정기, 김중현, 김유리, 김진석

    Two unrecorded alien plants, Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. (Urticaceae) and Elsholtzia griffithii Hook. f. (Lamiaceae), were found in Korea. P. microphylla was ... + READ MORE
    Two unrecorded alien plants, Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. (Urticaceae) and Elsholtzia griffithii Hook. f. (Lamiaceae), were found in Korea. P. microphylla was discovered in Seoul-si and Jeju-do. This species is distinguished from other related Korean taxa by leaf characteristics such as spatulate or obovate shape and 2-7 ㎜ long with entire margin. E. griffithii was discovered in Incheon-si. This species is defined by spikes, narrowly lanceolate bract with 3 ㎜ long and relatively shorter corolla length as ca 2.5 ㎜. Here, we provide Korean name, descriptions of the morphological characteristics, photographs and a key to allied taxa. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    New Record for Alien Plant, Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort. (Plantaginaceae) in Korea

    한반도 미기록 외래식물: 해란초아재비

    Jung-Hyun Kim, Myoung Ja Nam, Chae Eun Lim and Jin-Seok Kim

    김중현, 남명자, 임채은, 김진석

    An alien plant of unrecoreded Kickxia (Plantaginaceae) was found in Korea. K. eltine (L.) Dumort. was distirbuted in Yangju-si, Gyoenggi-do and Yeongcheon-si ... + READ MORE
    An alien plant of unrecoreded Kickxia (Plantaginaceae) was found in Korea. K. eltine (L.) Dumort. was distirbuted in Yangju-si, Gyoenggi-do and Yeongcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do. This species can be distinguished from the other related genera by having stems that trail along the groud without putting down roots, and the leaves are sagittate, or shaped like arrowheads with longer, narrower, pointed lobes opposite the shorter tip. The new Korean names is given, as ‘Hae-ran-cho-a-jae-bi’ to Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort. Here, we provide precise description, illustrations, photographs and taxonomic key to related genera and species. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Research Article

    A Study on the Flora and its Introduced Disturbing Plants in Damyang Area of Mudeungsan National Park, Korea

    무등산국립공원 담양 지구의 식물상과 생태계교란 식물에 관한 연구

    Jong-Won Lee, Suhong Lee and Shin-Ho Kang

    이종원, 이수홍, 강신호

    This study was investigated to find out the distribution of flora and remarkable plants and factors and management measures for influx of ... + READ MORE
    This study was investigated to find out the distribution of flora and remarkable plants and factors and management measures for influx of wild disturbed plants in the Damyang area of ​​Mudeungsan National Park. The field survey was carried out 8 times from May 2019 to October 2020. First of all, in the Damyang area of ​​Mudeungsan National Park, a total of 603 taxa in 107 families, 349 genera, 531 species, 57 varieties, 5 subspecies and 10 forms. This result was found to be about 12.33% of the total 4,881 taxa of vascular plants in Korea. In addition, Rare plants were classified as 15 taxa. Floristic special and Korean endemic plants were identified as 85 taxa and 13 taxa, respectively. Lastly, the naturalized plants that appeared in the Damyang area of ​​Mudeungsan National Park were observed in 45 taxa with 45 species of 16 families and 36 genera. Moreover the naturalization rate was 7.46% and the urbanization index was calculated to be 14.01%. The wild disturbed plants were found in a total of 4 taxa. Especially, a sheep sorrel(Rumex acetosella) was focused on managing for physica and biological control at Sinseondae Eoksaepyungjeon. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021