• Research Article

    Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidative Effects of Lotus Root Extract in LPS-PG-Stimulated Human Gingival Fibroblast-1 Cells

    치주염 원인균 LPS-PG로 유도된 인체 치은섬유아세포에서 연뿌리 추출물에 대한 항염증 및 항산화 효과

    Young-Kyung Lee, Chul Hwan Kim, Dae Won Jeong, Ki Won Lee, Young Taek Oh, Jeong Il Kim and Jin-Woo Jeong

    이영경, 김철환, 정대원, 이기원, 오영택, 김정일, 정진우

    Gingival inflammation is one of the main causes that can be related to various periodontal diseases. Human gingival fibroblast (HGF) is the … + READ MORE
    Gingival inflammation is one of the main causes that can be related to various periodontal diseases. Human gingival fibroblast (HGF) is the major constituent in periodontal connective tissue and secretes various inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. This study is aimed at investigating the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of Lotus Root extract (LRE) in Porphyromonas gingivalis derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS-PG)-stimulated HGF-1 cells. The concentration of NO and PGE2, as well as their responsible enzymes, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was analyzed by Griess reaction, ELISA, and western blot analysis. LPS-PG sharply elevated the production and protein expression of inflammatory mediators, which were significantly attenuated by LRE treatment in a dose-dependent manner. LRE treatment also suppressed activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in LPS-PG-stimulated HGF-1 cells. In addition, one of phase II enzyme, NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase (NQO)-1, and its transcription factor, Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), were significantly induced by LRE treatment. Consequently, these results suggest that LRE ameliorates LPS-PG-induced inflammatory responses by attenuating TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB, and activating NQO-1/Nrf2 antioxidant response element signaling pathways in HGF-1 cells. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activities of Aralia elata Ethanol Extract

    두릅 에탄올 추출물의 Chlorogenic acid 함량 분석 및 생리활성

    Jeong Ho Lee, Kyoung Ok Jeong, So Yeon Im, Da Mon Jin and Wang Ro Lee

    이정호, 정경옥, 임소연, 진다몬, 이왕로

    This study was conducted to quantify chlorogenic acid content and evaluate biological activity, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and digestive enzyme activity … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to quantify chlorogenic acid content and evaluate biological activity, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and digestive enzyme activity of Aralia elata ethanol extract (AEE). The SC50 of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of AEE were 4.79±0.05 ㎎/mL, 5.79±0.05 ㎎/mL; total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents were 170.0±1.8 ㎎GAE/g, 105.5±4.1 ㎎QE/g, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) was increased in RAW 264.7 cells and Caco-2 cells with treatment of LPS, and production of NO was inhibited by AEE in a concentration- dependent manner. Production of NO was reduced by 60.0±1.1% in RAW 264.7 cells and 50.7±2.8% in Caco-2 cells at of AEE. Similarly, the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) was inhibited in a concentration dependent manner. Antibacterial activity increased as the dose concentration of AEE increased, and the MIC was 75 ㎎/mL for L. monocytogenes, and 100 ㎎/mL for S. typhimurium and H. pylori. In addition, amylase and protease enzyme activity was observed in AEE and increased enzyme activity was observed according to the concentration of the extract. AEE contained 7.06±0.01 ㎎/g of chlorogenic acid. As a result of the experiment, it is judged that it can be used as basic data for the development of health food using Aralia elata. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Secondary Metabolites in Various Cultivars of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    다양한 콩 자원들의 이차대사물질 함량 분석

    Mi-Suk Seo, Gyu Tae Park, Hyun Young Kim, Sang-Beom Lee, Yu-na Kim, Soo-Kwon Park, Dool-Yi Kim and Jung Kyung Mun

    서미숙, 박규태, 김현영, 이상범, 김유나, 박수권, 김둘이, 문중경

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a high-protein oilseed crop, cultivated worldwide. Soybean seeds are abundant in various secondary metabolites with … + READ MORE
    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a high-protein oilseed crop, cultivated worldwide. Soybean seeds are abundant in various secondary metabolites with physiologically active. Mature seeds of 25 soybean cultivars with various morphological and physiological characteristics analyzed for secondary metabolites, such as carotenoid, isoflavone, and soyasaponin. These secondary metabolites showed various content by genotype in 25 cultivars. Total carotenoid content ranged from 1.23 to 33.78 ㎎/g and three cultivars, such as IT177645, PI90763 and IT234975 with black seed coat showed high levels of total carotenoid. Total isoflavones content ranged from 20.28 to 276.35 ㎎/100g and were detected high levels in Savoy, PI90763 and KLG16001. In addition, total soyasaponins content ranged from 33.12 to 246 ㎎/100g and were detected high levels in PI90763, PI86490 and IT234975. The PI90763 was showed abundant content in all of the carotenoid, isoflavones and soyasaponins. These results could be valuable information for the development of new soybean cultivars and regulation of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in soybean. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    Growing Environment Characteristics and Vegetational Structure of Sageretia thea, Medicinal Plant

    약용식물 상동나무 자생지 생육환경 특성과 식생구조

    Yonghwan Son, Ho Jun Son, Gwang Hun Park, Dong Hwan Lee, Hyejung Cho, Sun-Young Lee and Hyun-Jun Kim

    손용환, 손호준, 박광훈, 이동환, 조혜정, 이선영, 김현준

    This study was conducted to figure out the environment factors including vegetation structure and soil characteristics in natural habitats of Sageretia thea … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to figure out the environment factors including vegetation structure and soil characteristics in natural habitats of Sageretia thea, and offers the basic information for habitats conservation and proliferation. The natural habitats of Sageretia thea were located at altitudes between 0~370 m with inclinations ranged as 3~35°. Through the vegetation research, the dominant species of tree layers were found to be divided into four communities. Cornus macrophylla (Com. I), Pinus thunbergiiCinnamomum camphora (Com. II), Machilus thunbergii (Com. III), and Pinus thunbergii (Com. IV). The Species diversity (H’) was 1.397~1.455, evenness (J’) was 0.972~0.986, and dominance (D) was found to be 0.014~0.028. As a result of the physicochemical characteristics of soils, habitats soil mainly consisted of sandy soil and sandy loam soil. The average soil pH was 5.28~5.98, electronic conductivity was 0.22~63 ds/m, soil organic matter was 13.33~19.33 cmol+/㎏, Exchange cations were appeared in the order of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+. The Ordination result showed that Correlation coefficient between communities and environmental factors were significantly correlated with 4 main factors altitude, electronic conductivity, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Na+. As expected, The result of this study will be helpful information on the preservation and mass production for use. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb. (Poaceae), a New Invasive Alien Plant in Korea

    미기록 침입외래식물: 좀들묵새(벼과)

    Young-Soo Kim, Ju Eun Jang, Ji Eun Kim, Hyeon Jin Jeong, Eun Su Kang, Hee-Young Gil and Dong Chan Son

    김영수, 장주은, 김지은, 정현진, 강은수, 길희영, 손동찬

    Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb., a newly identified invasive alien species, was found in Gangcheon-ri, Yeoju-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. It is native to … + READ MORE
    Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb., a newly identified invasive alien species, was found in Gangcheon-ri, Yeoju-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. It is native to North America and has been reported to be an invasive alien plant in Japan, Australia, and Ukraine. Vulpia octoflora is a weed that grows mainly in dry sandy or rocky soil and is frequently found along the roadside in open areas or in artificially disturbed sites. This species is similar to the recently confirmed alert alien species, V. bromoides (L.) Gray, but is readily distinguishable due to more florets per spikelet and a short awn of the lemma. A detailed species description, the geographical distribution, illustrations, photographs, and an identification key for all species of Vulpia that occur in Korea are provided. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    The Vascular Plants of Bigeumdo and Dochodo Island

    비금・도초도의 식물상

    Young-Jong Jang, Su Young Jung, Eun Su Kang, Kang-Hyup Lee, Jung Sim Lee and Dong Chan Son

    장영종, 정수영, 강은수, 이강협, 이정심, 손동찬

    We investigated vascular plants of Bigeumdo and Dochodo Island in Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea. By referring to 4 field surveys between June and … + READ MORE
    We investigated vascular plants of Bigeumdo and Dochodo Island in Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea. By referring to 4 field surveys between June and September in 2021, a total of 490 taxa were identified and grouped into 113 families, 332 genera, 452 species, 6 subspecies, 27 varieties, and 3 forms. Among those observed, 232 taxa comprising 84 families, 189 genera, 220 species, 4 subspecies, 8 varieties, 4 forms were observed in Bigeumdo, 428 taxa comprising 107 families, 305 genera, 397 species, 5 subspecies, 23 varieties and 3 forms were observed in Dochodo. Among them, 7 taxa were Korean endemic plants. Protected species designated by the Ministry of Environment were 2 taxa of level II. In terms of threated plants according to the IUCN Red List Categoty, there were 5 taxa, consisting of 1 endangered species (EN), 3 vulnerable species (VU), 1 Near Threatened (NT). In total, there are 36 taxa of floristic regional indicator plants, including 1 level V taxa, 5 level IV taxa, 28 level III taxa. In Korea, 3 taxa were the northern distributional limit to Bigeumdo and Dochodo. Alien plants were 58 taxa. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    A Statistical Analysis of Phenotypic Diversity Based on Genetic Traits in Barley Germplasms

    특성평가 정보를 활용한 보리 유전자원 형태적 형질 다양성의 통계적 분석

    Dong Su Yu, Myoung-Jae Shin, Jin-Cheon Park and Manjung Kang

    유동수, 신명재, 박진천, 강만정

    The biodiversity research of barley, a functional food, is proceeding to conserve germplasms and develop new cultivar of barley to improve its … + READ MORE
    The biodiversity research of barley, a functional food, is proceeding to conserve germplasms and develop new cultivar of barley to improve its functional effects. In this study, with 25,104 barley germplasms in the National Agrobiodiversity Center, South Korea, the biodiversity index of species was much lower (1.17) than the origins (24.73) because of the presence of a biased species, Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare, but the species and origin of germplasms were significantly different with regard to genetic traits. In the clustering analysis based on genetic traits, we found that 97% barley germplasms could mostly be distributed between 1~7 clusters out of a total of 15 clusters; ‘normal and uzu type’, ‘lodging’, and ‘loose smut’ were commonly represented in the 1~7 clusters and some clusters showed specific differences in five genetic traits including ‘growth habit’. In correlation of each genetic trait, the infection of ‘barley yellow mosaic virus’ was highly correlated to ‘number of grains per spike’. ‘1000 grain weight’ was weakly correlated with seven genetic traits including ‘number of grains per spike’. Our analysis for barley’s biodiversity can provide a useful guide to the species’ phenotypes that need to be collected to conserve biodiversity and to breed new barley varieties. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    The Induction of Somatic Embryogenic Callus from Petals-Derived Callus in Rosa hybrida

    국내 육성 장미 품종 꽃잎 유래 체세포배 발생 캘러스 유도

    Su Young Lee, Ju Young Shin, Young Ah Lee, Chang Ho Ahn, Yae Jin Kim, Pil Man Park, Hye Ryun An, Ka Youn Lee and Hyun Hwan Jung

    이수영, 신주영, 이영아, 안창호, 김예진, 박필만, 안혜련, 이가연, 정현환

    This study was conducted to induce somatic embryogenic callus (SEC) derived from petals in rose. The petal explants of 3 cultivars (‘Ice … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to induce somatic embryogenic callus (SEC) derived from petals in rose. The petal explants of 3 cultivars (‘Ice Wing’, ‘Orange Eye’ and ‘Pink Beauty’) with different flower colors were placed on three types media (MS, SH and WPM) supplemented with 11 ㎎/L 2,4-D, respectively, and then cultured in the dark for 47 days. Calluses were formed at explants of all three cultivars. Also, ‘Ice Wing’, which were cultured in the SH as the basal medium, showed the highest callus formation rate. However, somatic embryos were generated from only petal-derived callus of ‘Ice Wing’, which were induced on the WPM as the basal medium, transferred it to SH basal medium supplemented with 3 ㎎/L 2,4-D, and 300 ㎎/L L-proline, and cultured for 5 weeks. The SEC has been proliferated every four weeks at the subculture interval. In addition, as a results of making a comparison of expression of RhSERK3 and RhSERK4, which is used as signal for generation of somatic embryo from callus in rose, between the SEC and petal-derived callus from ‘Ice Wing’ by RT-qPCR, the former showed 10 times higher RhSERK3 expression and 700 times higher RhSERK4 expression than the latter. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    Effect of Rye B chromosome on Meiotic Chromosome Association in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genetic Background

    밀 유전 배경에서 호밀 B 염색체가 감수분열 염색체 접합에 미치는 영향

    Seong-Woo Cho

    조성우

    The effect of rye B chromosome (rye B) on chromosome association was investigated in meiosis of wheat addition line. The wheat addition … + READ MORE
    The effect of rye B chromosome (rye B) on chromosome association was investigated in meiosis of wheat addition line. The wheat addition line was with one Leymus mollis chromosome and one L. racemosus chromosome which are under homoeologous relationship. Chromosome behavior of the two Leymus chromosomes in wheat genetic background was revealed by genomic in situ hybridization. In the first metaphase, most of the two Leymus chromosomes showed univalent in the wheat addition line without rye B (98.1 ± 0.5%). On the other hand, the wheat addition line with rye B showed higher frequency of bivalent (10.3 ± 0.2%) than wheat addition line without rye B (1.9 ± 0.5%). The wheat addition line without rye B showed abnormal bivalents with abnormal structure while the wheat addition line with rye B showed normal bivalent in low frequency. By rye B, some bivalent was composed of wheat and L. racemosus, and some trivalent was composed of wheat bivalents with L. mollis chromosome. Also, some wheat bivalents showed hyper-crossover, so those wheat bivalents showed abnormal structure compared to other wheat bivalents with normal structure such as ring, rod, and pan. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    Rooting Characteristics of Sageretia thea by Cutting Time, Rooting Medium and Plant Growth Regulators

    삽목시기, 삽목용토, 생장조절제에 따른 상동나무 삽목발근 특성

    Yonghwan Son, Sunghyuk Park, Hojun Son, Ji-Ah Kim, Hyejung Cho, Sun-Young Lee and Hyun-Jun Kim

    손용환, 박성혁, 손호준, 김지아, 조혜정, 이선영, 김현준

    This study was conducted to determine the three main factors [rooting time, plant growth regulators (PGRs), rooting medium] of cuttage for mass … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine the three main factors [rooting time, plant growth regulators (PGRs), rooting medium] of cuttage for mass production of Sageretia thea. The experiment was observed on cuttage tray after 120 days and classified by rooting times, plant growth regulators, rooting medium. Materials were collected from natural habitats of S. thea from the Korean peninsula at March, July and September during 2019. As a result of the experiment, rooting times were showed statistically significant differences. March group's rooting rate and root length were 15 and 200% better than others. In PGRs experiment by concentration, There was no significant correlation between the control and experiment in terms of rooting rate. However, In the case of root length, IBA 500 ㎎/L, IBA 250 ㎎/L and IAA 1,000 ㎎/L groups were lengthened up to 170% compared to the control group, confirming statistically significant differences. As a result, we recommend treating cuttings with IBA 500 ㎎/L in March with Hardwood cutting. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    Comparison of Soil Chemical Properties in Greenhouse or Open Field Where Flower Crops were Cultivated from 2018 to 2020

    화훼작물이 재배된 온실 또는 노지재배지의 토양 화학성 비교

    Hye Sook Kwon and Seong Heo

    권혜숙, 허성

    A comparative analysis was performed on the soil chemical properties of greenhouse or open field where flower crops were grown from 2018 … + READ MORE
    A comparative analysis was performed on the soil chemical properties of greenhouse or open field where flower crops were grown from 2018 to 2020. The pH of greenhouse soils was kept slightly higher than the optimum range suggested by Rural Development Administration and that of open field soils was maintained within the optimum range for three years. The contents of organic matter (OM) were within the optimum range without significant change every year in both soils. Available phosphate (Av. P2O5) of greenhouse soils was the highest at 560 ㎎/㎏ in 2018, but it decreased every year and fell within the appropriate range in 2020. The concentration of Av. P2O5 in open field soils have fluctuated for three years, not showing a significant difference. Electrical conductivity (EC) of greenhouse soils was higher every year than the standard, 2.0 dS/m, but EC of open field soils remained below the standard. The contents of exchangeable cations were higher than the standard, showing significant differences among the years in greenhouse soils. In open field soils, other cations except exchangeable K+ were maintained higher than the optimal level and only Ca2+ showed a significant difference among the years. In Pearson correlation matrices, the value of exchangeable Ca2+ had a significantly positive correlation with exchangeable Mg2+ content at both greenhouse and open field soils. Based on principal component analysis, the soils of greenhouse were distributed within the range of high concentrations of Av. P2O5, EC and exchangeable cations, while the soils of open field were characterized by low contents of OM and exchangeable cations. Therefore, it is essential to lower the concentration of exchangeable cations in greenhouse soils. It is common for the soils of open field to have a low OM content, so that organic fertilizers should be more actively applied to the soils in open field. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022
  • Research Article

    Effects of Pre-cropping with Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Alternative Crops on Grain Yield and Flour Quality of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Jokyung’) on the Paddy Fields

    논에서 벼 대체작물의 전작 재배가 조경밀의 곡물 생산성과 밀가루의 품질에 미치는 영향

    Seo Young Oh, Jong Ho Seo, Jisu Choi and Seong Hwan Oh

    오서영, 서종호, 최지수, 오성환

    The grain yield and flour quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Jokyung’) were investigated in the paddy fields in which … + READ MORE
    The grain yield and flour quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Jokyung’) were investigated in the paddy fields in which the double-cropping of wheat linked to rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its alternative crops [black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), and perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton)] was applied. In the soils in which black soybean, sesame, and perilla as pre-crops were cultivated, the soil pH was higher and the electrical conductivity was lower than in the rice pre-cropped soil. In addition, the available phosphate (Av. P2O5), and contents of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were higher than in the rice pre-cropped soil. Winter wheat growth characteristics such as culm length, spike length, number of spikes and grains were generally favorable in the black soybean pre-cropped soil. However, the grain yield of winter wheat increased in the black soybean, sesame, and perilla pre-cropped soils by 100 ㎏/10a or more than in the rice pre-cropped soil. Furthermore, protein content and SDS-sedimentation value of the flour were higher, while amylose content was slightly lower, in the black soybean, sesame, and perilla pre-cropped soils than in rice pre-cropped soil. These results suggest that cultivation of rice alternative crops such as sesame, black soybean, and perilla as pre-crops in paddy soil could improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil and contribute to producing high-quality wheat flour more advantageous for the baking process. - COLLAPSE
    1 October 2022