• Research Article

    Rosa laevigata Michx. (Rosaceae): A Newly Alien Plant in Korea
    Woong Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim and Jin-Seok Kim
    We found Rosa laevigata Michx., a newly alien plant in Songjinpo-ri, Jangmok-myeon, Geoje-si, Gyeongsangnam-do. Rosa laevigata is native to China, Taiwan, and ... + READ MORE
    We found Rosa laevigata Michx., a newly alien plant in Songjinpo-ri, Jangmok-myeon, Geoje-si, Gyeongsangnam-do. Rosa laevigata is native to China, Taiwan, and Vietnam. It is reported as a naturalized species in Japan, South Africa, United States, and the Pacific Islands. Rosa laevigata is distinguished from R. multiflora by the large size of its flower. Its Korean name is 'Wang-jjil-re-na-mu' based on the large flower. Here, we provide precise description, taxonomic key to Korean Rosa species, illustrations and photographs of its habit. - COLLAPSE
    May 2021
  • Research Article

    In vitro Immunostimulatory Activity of Bok Choy (Brassica campestris var. chinensis) Sprouts in RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells
    Na Gyeong Geum, Joo Ho Yeo, Ju Hyeong Yu, Min Yeong Choi, Jae Won Lee, Jueng Kyu Baek and Jin Boo Jeong
    Bok choy is one of Brassica vegetables widely consumed worldwide. Brassica vegetables have been reported to exert various pharmacological activities such as ... + READ MORE
    Bok choy is one of Brassica vegetables widely consumed worldwide. Brassica vegetables have been reported to exert various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-cancer and cardioprotective activity. However, studies on immunostimulatory activity of bok choy sprout have not been conducted properly. Thus, in this study, we investigated in vitro immunostimulatory activity of bok choy sprout extract (BCS) using mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Our results showed that BCS increased the production of immunomodulators such as NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and MCP-1, and phagocytic activity in RAW264.7 cells. BCS activated MAPK, NF-κB and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. However, BCS-mediated production of immunomodulators was dependent on JNK, NF-κB and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. the mRNA expression of TLR2 were significantly increased by BCS, TLR2 inhibition by anti-TLR2 dramatically suppressed the production of immunomodulators by BCS. In addition, TLR2 inhibition by anti-TLR2 significantly reduced BCS-mediated phosphorylation level of AKT, JNK and NF-κB. From these results, BCS may have immunostimulatory activity via TLR2-MAPK, NF-κB and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Therefore, BCS expected to be used as a potential immune-enhancing agent. - COLLAPSE
    May 2021
  • Research Article

    The Ameliorative Effect of Rubi Fructus on DSS-induced Colitis in Mice
    Noh-Yil Myung
    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease and a chronic gastrointestinal disorder. Rubi Fructus (RF), the fruit of Rubus coreanus Miquel ... + READ MORE
    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease and a chronic gastrointestinal disorder. Rubi Fructus (RF), the fruit of Rubus coreanus Miquel, is known to exert several pharmacological effects including anti-oxidative, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the improving effect and mechanism of RF on intestinal inflammation is not been fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of RF on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. We evaluated the effects of RF on DSS-induced clinical signs by analyzing weight loss and colon length. The inhibitory effects of RF on inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), were determined in colitis tissue. Our data indicated that mice treated with DSS showed clinical symptoms of colitis, including weight loss, colon length decrease and diarrhea. However, we observed that RF treatment significantly improved these clinical symptoms of weight loss, colon length decrease and diarrhea induced by DSS. RF inhibited the enhanced levels of COX-2 and PGE2 caused by DSS. We also showed that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of RF by suppressing the activation of NF-kB in DSS-treated colon tissues. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate the prospect of developing new drugs from RF for UC treatment. - COLLAPSE
    May 2021
  • Research Article

    The Report on the Taxonomic Characters, Ecological Risk and Weed Risk Assessment of Putative Invasive Alien Plants which are Designated in Law by the Ministry of Environment in Korea as Environmentally Harmful Species (III)
    Tae-Hee Kim, ChangYoung Yoon and Joo-Hwan Kim
    We conducted a taxonomic study and agricultural environmental risk assessments of 41 putative invasive alien plants designated by the Ministry of Environment ... + READ MORE
    We conducted a taxonomic study and agricultural environmental risk assessments of 41 putative invasive alien plants designated by the Ministry of Environment in 2016. In order to achieve the goal, we carried out the field survey four times including the United States, Australia, and Mexico, and investigated specimens, literature, and other information including seed morphology, classification key, and habitat conditions. In this study, we reported the taxonomic characters, ecological risk, and weed risk assessment of 41 putative invasive alien plants, and suggested significant information about 11 species to contribute to establish solutions of regulation management for putative invasive alien plants - Spirodela punctata (G.Mey.) C.H.Thomps. (Araceae), Sagittaria graminea Michx. (Alismataceae), Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H.St. John, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L., Stratiotes aloides L. (Hydrocharitaceae), Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth, Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms (Pontederiaceae), Aegilops tauschii Coss. (Poaceae), Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. (Haloragaceae), Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae), and Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. (Apiaceae). - COLLAPSE
    May 2021