• Research Article

    Undaria pinnatifida Inhibits the Mast Cell-Mediated Inflammatory Response via NF-κB/Caspase-1 Suppression
    Yong-Deok Jeon, Su-Hyun Lee and Su-Jin Kim
    Marine sources as potential treatment options for various diseases have been a subject of growing interest. However, information on the anti-inflammatory mechanism … + READ MORE
    Marine sources as potential treatment options for various diseases have been a subject of growing interest. However, information on the anti-inflammatory mechanism employed by Undaria pinnatifida (UP) remains limited. The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms of UP on the mast cell-mediated inflammatory response. To determine the pharmacological mechanism of UP in inflammatory reaction, we evaluated the effects of UP on interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and caspase-1 activation in calcium ionophore A23187 plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated human mast cells-1 (HMC-1). The results showed that UP suppressed IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α production in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, UP significantly attenuated NF-kB/caspase-1 activation in stimulated HMC-1. Collectively, these findings provide experimental evidence that UP may be a useful candidate for the inflammation-related diseases treatment. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Anti-melanogenesis Effects of Schizophragma hydrangeoides Leaf Ethanol Extracts via Downregulation of Tyrosinase Activity
    Ho Bong Hyun, Hye Jin Hyeon, Sung Chun Kim, Boram Go, Seon-A Yoon, Yong-Hwan Jung and Young-Min Ham
    Whitening agents derived from natural sources which do not have side effects are sought after. Schizophragma hydrangeoides is an edible plant that … + READ MORE
    Whitening agents derived from natural sources which do not have side effects are sought after. Schizophragma hydrangeoides is an edible plant that grows wild on Jeju Island. We aimed to determine whether S. hydrangeoides extracts show anti-melanogenic activity. Here, we found that 70% ethanol extracts of S. hydrangeoides leaf suppressed α-melanocyte- stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. This activity of anti-melanogenesis in B16F10 cells were investigated by determining melanin content and tyrosinase activity, and by performing western blotting. The 70% ethanol extract downregulated tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1. In addition, the n-hexane fraction of S. hydrangeoides leaf (HFSH) exhibited significant anti-melanogenic activity among the various solvent fractions tested without reducing the viability of B16F10 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that extracts from S. hydrangeoides leaf can influence cellular processes via modulation of tyrosinase activity. Hence, S. hydrangeoides can be used as a whitening agent in the cosmetic industry and as a therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation disorders in the clinic. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Effect of Turmeric Extracts on Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Germinated Korean Brown Rice
    Jeong-Ho Kim, Yong-Han Yoon, Il-Doo Kim, Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana, Yong-Sung Park and Dong-Hyun Shin
    Brown rice is more nutritious than the commonly consumed white rice, however, the former is not widely accepted because of its coarse … + READ MORE
    Brown rice is more nutritious than the commonly consumed white rice, however, the former is not widely accepted because of its coarse texture and difficulty in cooking. Germination is an easy technique to minimize the drawback of normal brown rice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three different concentrations (1, 3, and 5% w/v) of turmeric extracts on the nutrient and antioxidant activities of germinated brown rice (GBR). The b (yellowness) values of the turmeric-treated GBR were significantly higher than that of the untreated control. Lower concentration (1%) slightly increased (3395.5 ㎎/㎏) but higher concentrations (3 and 5%) reduced (1735.8 - 2393.7 ㎎/㎏) the total mineral content in GBR, as compared to the control (3377.4 ㎎/㎏). The amount of essential, non-essential, and total amino acids, including GABA, were increased with the concentration of turmeric extracts. The amount of essential amino acids was increased by 58.3, 71.5, and 88.3% with the application of 1, 3, and 5% extracts, respectively. The antioxidant potential of GBR was also enhanced with turmeric treatment. Overall results indicated that 1 or 3% turmeric treatment could be appropriate to enhance the nutritional and functional value of GBR. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic Contents of Three Legumes
    Kyung Jun Lee, Ga-Hee Kim, Gi-An Lee, Jung-Ro Lee, Gyu-Taek Cho, Kyung-Ho Ma and Sookyeong Lee
    Legumes have been important components of the human diet. They contain not only protein, starch, and dietary fiber, but also various phenolic … + READ MORE
    Legumes have been important components of the human diet. They contain not only protein, starch, and dietary fiber, but also various phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. The importance of phenolic compounds to human health is well known due to their antioxidant activities. In this study, three legumes (adzuki beans, common beans, and black soybeans) frequently cultivated in Korea were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate)), and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) assays. In addition, correlations between agricultural traits and antioxidant activities of these three legumes were analyzed. Antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays and TPC showed wide variations among legumes types and accessions. Among the three legumes, adzuki beans showed higher TPC and antioxidant activity than the other two legumes. In correlation analysis, seed size showed negative correlations with antioxidant activities and TPC. In principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, each of the three legumes was clearly separate. Results of this study can be used as basic information for developing functional materials for each legume. They can also help us understand the overall antioxidant activity of the three legumes. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Immunostimulatory Activity of Hibiscus manihot Flower in Mouse Macrophages, RAW264.7 Cells
    Na Gyeong Geum, Ju Hyeong Yu, Joo Ho Yeo, Min Yeong Choi, Gwang Hun Park, Se Chul Hong and Jin Boo Jeong
    In this study, we investigated whether Hibiscus manihot flowers (HMF) exhibits immunostimulatory activity in RAW264.7 cells. HMF increased the production of immunostimulatory … + READ MORE
    In this study, we investigated whether Hibiscus manihot flowers (HMF) exhibits immunostimulatory activity in RAW264.7 cells. HMF increased the production of immunostimulatory factors such as NO, iNOS, IL-1β and TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. TLR2 and TLR4 blocked HMF-mediated production of immunostimulatory factors in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the inhibition of MAPK signaling pathway reduced HMF-mediated production of immunostimulatory factors. From these results, HMF is thought to promote the production of immunostimulatory factors through activating TLR2/4/MAPK signaling in macrophages. It is believed that HMF can be developed as an agent related to immune enhancement in the future. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Variations of Yield Components and Anthocyanin Contents in Soritae and Yakkong Black Soybean Landraces Collected from Different Areas
    Yu-Mi Choi, Hyemyeong Yoon, Myoung-Jae Shin, Yoonjung Lee, Sukyeung Lee, Wang Xiao Han and Kebede Taye Desta
    In this study, we cultivated 115 Soritae and 86 Yakkong black soybean landraces collected from ten different locations in Korea. Then, the … + READ MORE
    In this study, we cultivated 115 Soritae and 86 Yakkong black soybean landraces collected from ten different locations in Korea. Then, the variations of three yield components (one-hundred seeds weight (HSW), number of seeds per pod (SPP), and yield per plant (YPP)) and three anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C-3-O-G), delphinidin-3-O- glucoside (D-3-O-G) and petunidin-3-O-glucoside (Pt-3-O-G)) were investigated according to landrace type and collection area. Both yield components and anthocyanin contents significantly varied between the soybeans demonstrating genetic differences. Soritae landraces had the highest average HSW and TAC, whereas Yakkong landraces displayed the highest average SPP irrespective of collection area. Relatively, Yakkong landraces from Gyeongsangnam-do (1697.29 ㎎/100 g) and Soritae landraces from Gyeonggi-do (2340.94 ㎎/100 g) had the highest average TAC. Principal component analysis clearly separated Soritae and Yakkong landraces. Moreover, TAC and C-3-O-G showed positive and significant associations in both Soritae (r = 0.972) and Yakkong (r = 0.885) landraces, while yield components showed negative or weak correlations with each other. Overall, ten landraces were identified as important resources owing to their high yield (>150 g/plant) and high level of TAC (>2300 ㎎/100g). This study could lay foundations to molecular level investigations and reinforce the use of Yakkong and Soritae landraces during cultivar development. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    β-Carotene, Cucumisin Content and Fruit Morphology of Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Germplasm Collections
    Yeong-Jee Kim, Ae-Jin Hwang, Jae-Jong Noh, Xiaohan Wang, Jae-Eun Lee, Eunae Yoo, Sookyeong Lee, Sojeong Hwang, Myung-Kon Kim and Hyungjun Noh
    Melon fruits are a year-old plant in the family Cucurbitae and are the most cultivated fruit in tropical countries. Melon flesh is … + READ MORE
    Melon fruits are a year-old plant in the family Cucurbitae and are the most cultivated fruit in tropical countries. Melon flesh is an important source of anti-cancer, antioxidant effects, attracting attention as a functional food. We investigated the morphological properties, β-carotene content, and cucumisin activity of seeds of 58 melon genetic resources. Melon resources have shown various morphological properties. Melons grouped by morphological properties were the five groups. β-carotene content varied between 82.34 ㎎/㎏, 86.75 ㎎/㎏, 25.56 ㎎/㎏, 86.25 ㎎/㎏, and 54.65 ㎎/㎏. Between β-carotene, cucumisin activity and other quantitative fruit morphological properties, the color of the pulp and the firmness of the pulp had a significant amount of correlation between the β-carotene content. However, cucumisin activity and β-carotene content had significant negative correlation, and the color of the fruit and shape of the fruit had significant negative correlation with β-carotene content and activity of cucumisin. Our study vindicated that high diversity in melon morphological characters of genetic sources that provide beneficial baseline data for the future and in the activity of β-carotene and cucumisin, and these results could predict indicators of β-carotene content by the length of leaf, the width of fruit, the length of joint, and the length of seed, and collectively the morphological properties of melons could help predict indicators of β-carotene content and help develop functional sarcoma and farmhouse cultivation. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Study on the of the Correlation between Soil Chemical Properties and Bioactive Compounds of Acer tegmentosum Maxim.
    Dong Hwan Lee, Youngki Park, Seong Su Hong, Gwang Hun Park and Hyun-Jun Kim
    This research was carried out to investigate the correlation between soil chemical properties and bioactive compounds of Acer tegmentosum Maxim. The methods … + READ MORE
    This research was carried out to investigate the correlation between soil chemical properties and bioactive compounds of Acer tegmentosum Maxim. The methods of determining bioactive compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, that contained (-)-gallocatechin (0.04±0.01 ~ 0.43±0.28%), salidroside (0.90±0.06 ~ 3.86±0.59%), tyrosol (0.03±0.00 ~ 0.43±0.00%), (-)-catechin (0.05±0.01 ~ 0.37±0.14%), 6’-O-galloylsalidroside (0.02± 0.01 ~ 0.31±0.06%), (-)-epicatechin-gallate (0.01±0.00 ~ 0.04±0.01%). The soil chemical properties analysis such as soil pH, electric conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphate (Avail. P2O5), exchangeable cation and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were performed following the standard manual. The correlation analysis between soil chemical properties and bioactive compounds of A. tegmentosum, soil pH, available phosphate and exchangeable cation (Ca2+ and Mg2+) were negatively correlated with content of salidroside. On the other hand, soil exchangeable cation (Na+) showed positive correlation with content of salidroside. The results of this study was able to investigate the correlation between soil chemical properties and bioactive compounds of A. tegmentosum. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Characterization of Phenotypic Traits and Evaluation of Glucosinolate Contents in Radish Germplasms (Raphanus sativus L.)
    Bichsaem Kim, Onsook Hur, Jae-Eun Lee, Awraris Derbie Assefa, Ho-Cheol Ko, Yun-Jo Chung, Ju-hee Rhee and Bum-Soo Hahn
    The edible roots of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) are consumed worldwide. For characterization and evaluation of the agronomic traits and health-promoting … + READ MORE
    The edible roots of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) are consumed worldwide. For characterization and evaluation of the agronomic traits and health-promoting chemicals in radish germplasms, new germplasm breeding materials need to be identified. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the phenotypic traits and glucosinolate contents of radish roots from 110 germplasms, by analyzing correlations between 10 quantitative phenotypic traits and the individual and total contents of five glucosinolates. Phenotypic characterization was performed based on descriptors from the UPOV and IBPGR, and glucosinolate contents were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Regarding the phenotypic traits, a significant correlation between leaf length and root weight was observed. Glucoraphasatin was the main glucosinolate, accounting for an average of 71% of the total glucosinolates in the germplasms; moreover, its content was significantly correlated with that of glucoerucin, its precursor. Principal component analysis indicated that the 110 germplasms could be divided into five groups based on their glucosinolate contents. High levels of free-radical scavenging activity (DPPH) were observed in red radishes. These results shed light on the beneficial traits that could be targeted by breeders, and could also promote diet diversification by demonstrating the health benefits of various germplasms. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Efficient Cryopreservation of In Vitro Grown Shoot Tips of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) Germplasm Using Droplet-Vitrification
    Jinjoo Bae, Sun-Yi Lee, Jae-Young Song, Jung-Ro Lee, Munsup Yoon, Jung-Yoon Yi, Haeng-Hoon Kim and Young-Yi Lee
    Cryopreservation method using a droplet vitrification was applied to the thirty-one strawberry accessions of in vitro grown shoot tips. A protocol with … + READ MORE
    Cryopreservation method using a droplet vitrification was applied to the thirty-one strawberry accessions of in vitro grown shoot tips. A protocol with 0.3 - 0.5 M preculture followed by C4 loading and B1 dehydration solutions efficiently implemented cryopreservation of twenty-six strawberry accessions. The highest regrowth rate was 85.8% for PHS0007 and others were ranged between 85.8% and 21.0%. A slightly modified protocol was applied to five accessions. With these two protocols, twenty-eight accessions obtained more than 40% regrowth rate. This study showed that the droplet vitrification method was able to practically implement cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips of broad range of strawberry germplasm (105). - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Growth and Development of Platycodon grandiflorus under Sensor-based Soil Moisture Control on Open Farmland and Pot Conditions
    Ye-Jin Lee, Kyeong-Soo Kim, So-Hee Lim, Young-Beob Yu and Chang-Hyu Bae
    Soil moisture control system including soil sensing and automatic water supply chain was constructed on open farmland and pot conditions. Soil moisture … + READ MORE
    Soil moisture control system including soil sensing and automatic water supply chain was constructed on open farmland and pot conditions. Soil moisture was controlled by the system showing over the soil moisture contents except 40% treatment. EC was gradually decreased by increasing cultivation days. On applying this system to control soil moisture, the growth and development characters of the bellflower were improved compared with control, cultivation without the automatic irrigation. Of the growth and development characters, plant height with water treatments was higher than that of control in 1st-year plants. Moreover, numbers of branch were increased by the increased soil moisture on farmland and pot condition. Capsule numbers for seed were best at 20%, 30% soil moisture treatment in 1st-year plants, and 20% to 50% treatment in 2nd-year plants. The construction of automatic soil moisture control system provide fundamental data for plant growth and development on open farmland soil condition. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    The Report on the Taxonomic Characters, Ecological Risk and Weed Risk Assessment of Putative Invasive Alien Plants which are Designated in Law by the Ministry of Environment in Korea as Environmentally Harmful Species (IV)
    Jong Young Hyun, Chang Young Yoon and Joo-Hwan Kim
    We performed taxonomic reviews and habitat circumstances survey for 41 un-introduced environmentally harmful plants (as designated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea … + READ MORE
    We performed taxonomic reviews and habitat circumstances survey for 41 un-introduced environmentally harmful plants (as designated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea in 2016). And we investigated plant specimens from several herbaria and performed a field survey in the southeastern region of the United States. Based on the result, we presented the most comprehensive results of weed risk evaluation and taxonomic description up to now as well as classification keys for 11 species to apply the regulation management of putative invasive alien species - Senecio madagascariensis Poir., Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Ageratina riparia (Regel) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae), Andropogon gayanus Kunth (Poaceae), Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray (Cucurbitaceae), Salvinia minima Baker (Salviniaceae), Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Asclepiadaceae), Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce (Asparagaceae), Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae), Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam.) Thell., and Lycium ferocissimum Miers (Solanaceae). - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Research Article

    A Flora of Vascular Plants in Mt. Munsusan, Bonghwa
    Hye Jeong Lee, Jun Gi Byeon, Tae Im Heo, Ji Dong Kim, Byeong Joo Park, Dong Hyuk Lee and Jun Woo Lee
    This study was carried out to elucidate the distribution of vascular plants and their usefulness of Mt. Munsusan (1,205 m) in Bonghwa … + READ MORE
    This study was carried out to elucidate the distribution of vascular plants and their usefulness of Mt. Munsusan (1,205 m) in Bonghwa County, North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. The vascular plants that were investigated in 2 years (2019 ~ 2020) with 15 times consisted a total of 571 taxa; 94 families, 310 genera, 496 species, 4 subspecies, 63 varieties and 8 formas. For the Korean endemic plants, 17 taxa were recorded and 3 taxa of Vulnerable Species (VU) and 9 taxa of Least Concerned species (LC) categorized by the Korean Forest Service as rare plants were investigated in this region. Furthermore, Ⅳ, Ⅲ degrees of floristic regional indicator plants designated by the Korean Ministry of Environment included 8 taxa and 27 taxa, respectively. Among them, edible, medicinal, ornamental, feed/composting, industrial plants were 391 taxa, 359 taxa, 301 taxa, 241 taxa, 217 taxa, respectively. In addition, 25 taxa of naturalized plants were observed. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021