• Research Article

    The Growth Characteristics and Ginsenoside Contents of Wild-simulated Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) with Different Years by Rusty Roots

    적변에 따른 연근별 산양삼 생육특성과 진세노사이드 함량

    Kiyoon Kim, Hyun-Ji Eo, Hyun-Jun Kim, Yurry Um, Dae-Hui Jeong, Jeong-Hoon Huh and Kwon-Seok Jeon

    김기윤, 어현지, 김현준, 엄유리, 정대희, 허정훈, 전권석

    The aim of this study was to investigate the growth characteristic and ginsenoside contents of 7 and 13 year-old wild-simulated ginseng (Panax ... + READ MORE
    The aim of this study was to investigate the growth characteristic and ginsenoside contents of 7 and 13 year-old wild-simulated ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) according to rusty root. The root growth characteristics of wild- simulated ginseng were did not shows significant difference according to the rusty root. The results of ginsenoside contents of wild-simulated ginseng according to rusty root, ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 of 7 year-old wild-simulated ginseng were had shows a significantly higher in rusty root compare to general root. On the other hand, ginsenodie Rc, Rd, Re and Rg2 were significantly higher in gerneral root. In the case of 13 year-old wild-simulated ginseng, the contents of ginsenoside did not shows to significant difference according to rusty root. The results of correlation analysis between growth characteristics and ginsenoside content of general root, the ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rf, Rg1 were positive correlation with root length, while as the ginsenoside Rd of rusty root was shows significantly negative correlation with root length. The results of this study was might be able to improve awareness of consumer related to rusty root of wild-simulated ginseng. Moreover, might be help to provide useful information on the establish quality standard and distribution system of wild-simulated ginseng. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Immuno-enhancing and Anti-obesity Effect of Abelmoschus manihot Root Extracts

    금화규(Abelmoschus manihot) 뿌리 추출물의 면역증진 및 항비만효과

    Ju Hyeong Yu, Na Gyeong Geum, Joo Ho Ye and Jin Boo Jeong

    유주형, 금나경, 여주호, 정진부

    In this study, we investigated in vitro immune-enhancing and anti-obesity activity of Abelmoschus manihot roots (AMR) in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we investigated in vitro immune-enhancing and anti-obesity activity of Abelmoschus manihot roots (AMR) in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and mouse adipocytes 3T3-L1 cells. AMR increased the production of immunostimulatory factors such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells. The inhibition of toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 blocked AMR-mediated production of immunostimulatory factors in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway reduced AMR-mediated production of immunostimulatory factors. From these results, AMR is considered to have immune-enhancing activity through TLR2/4-mediated activation of MAPKs signaling pathway. In addition, AMR inhibited lipid accumulation and reduced the protein level such as CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), perilipin-1, adiponectin and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) associated with lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, indicating that AMR may have anti-obesity activity. Based on these results, AMR is expected to be used as a potential functional agent for immune enhancement and anti-obesity. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Stachys sieboldii Extract

    초석잠 추출물의 항산화, 항균 및 항염 활성

    Jeong Ho Lee

    이정호

    This study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and digestive enzyme activity in water extract (SAW) and 60% ethanol extract (SAE ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and digestive enzyme activity in water extract (SAW) and 60% ethanol extract (SAE) from Stachys sieboldii. As the treatment concentration of each extract S. sieboldii extract increased, antibacterial and antioxidant activity increased. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of SAW were 106.25 ± 0.94 ㎎GAE/g, 24.4 ± 0.24 ㎎QE/g and SAE were 124.61 ± 1.11 ㎎GAE/g, 45.2 ± 3.52 ㎎QE/g, respectively. The 400 ㎍/mL of SAW and SAE performed more than 53% protective effects against oxidative stress in HepG2 cell lines. All extracts were not showed cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cell line at 100 μg/mL. NO production was reduced to 44.3 ± 1.4% for SAW and 45.1 ± 1.0% for SAE at a concentration of 100 ㎍/mL. The production of inflammatory cytokines each TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was inhibited in a concentration-dependent. S. sieboldii extract did not showed Caco-2 cells cytotoxicity and inhibited NO production in concentration-dependent. As the concentration of the S. sieboldii extract increased of α-amylase and protease enzymes activity, which are digestive enzyme. As a result of the experiment, it is judged that it can be used as basic data for the development of health food using S. sieboldii. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Bioavailability and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Fermented Red Ginseng in BALB/c Mouse

    BALB/c 마우스에서 발효 홍삼 Ginsenoside의 생체이용율과 항염효과

    Eun Kyu Lee, Chu Hyun Bae, Yu Jin Kim, Soo-Dong Park, Jae-Jung Shim, Youngbob Yu and Jung-Lyoul Lee

    이은규, 배주현, 김유진, 박수동, 심재중, 유영법, 이정열

    The fermented red ginseng by microorganism is known to increase pharmacological activity in vivo. To evaluate the bioavailablity of red ginseng fermented ... + READ MORE
    The fermented red ginseng by microorganism is known to increase pharmacological activity in vivo. To evaluate the bioavailablity of red ginseng fermented by probiotics, we conducted the pharmacokinetic study of ginsenoside Rb1, Rd and total ginsenosides (TG, ginsenosides Rb1 + Rd + Rg1 + F2 + Rg3 + compound K) in BALB/C mice. The AUC value of ginsenoside Rb1 in mice serum administered with 600㎎/㎏ drugs showed 21.93 ± 14.68 ng·h/mL (RGw, water extract), 275.211 ± 110.04 ng·h/mL (RGe, 50% ethanol extract) and 404.91 ± 162.57 ng·h/mL (fRGe, fermented red ginseng extract). Analysis of ginsenoside Rd also showed a higher ACU value in fRGe than in RGw or RGe. And the AUC value of total ginsenosides in mice serum treated with 600 ㎎/㎏ were observed 42.12 ± 23.44 ng·h/mL (RGw), 321.44 ± 133.5 ng·h/mL (RGe) and 537.33 ± 229.01 ng·h/mL (fRGe), respectively. Cmax value of ginsenoside Rb1 in mice administered with 600㎎/㎏ were observed 3.67 ± 3.34 ng/mL (RGw), 23.27 ± 8.81 ng/mL (RGe) and 25.52 ± 7.29 ng/mL (fRGe). These results can be considered that the fermented red ginseng has more bioavailability than that of unfermented red ginseng. In quantitative analysis of the inflammation-related cytokines IL-1β and TNF, no significant difference was found between the fermented red ginseng (fRGe) and the red ginseng (RGe). - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    SNP Markers Useful for the Selection of Yellow-fleshed Peach Cultivar

    황육계 복숭아 품종 선발용 SNP 마커

    Se Hee Kim, Jung-hyun Kwon, Kang Hee Cho, Il Sheob Shin, Ji Hae Jun and Sang-Yun Cho

    김세희, 권정현, 조강희, 신일섭, 전지혜, 조상윤

    Peach flesh color is commercially important criteria for classification and has implications for nutritional quality. To breed new yellow-fleshed peach cultivar many ... + READ MORE
    Peach flesh color is commercially important criteria for classification and has implications for nutritional quality. To breed new yellow-fleshed peach cultivar many cross seedlings and generations should be maintained. Therefore it is necessary to develop early selection molecular markers for screening cross seedlings and germplasm with economically important traits to increase breeding efficiency. For the comparison of transcription profiles in peach varieties with a different flesh color expression, two cDNA libraries were constructed. Differences in gene expression between yellow- fleshed peach cultivar, ‘Changhowon Hwangdo’ and white-fleshed peach cultivar, ‘Mibaekdo’ were analyzed by next- generation sequencing (NGS). Expressed sequence tag (EST) of clones from the two varieties was selected for nucleotide sequence determination and homology searches. Putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened from peach EST contigs by high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, SNP ID ppa002847m:cds and ppa002540m:cds displayed specific difference between 17 yellow-fleshed and 21 white-fleshed peach varieties. The SNP markers for distinguishing yellow and white fleshed peach varieties by HRM analysis offers the opportunity to use early selection. This SNP markers could be useful for marker assisted breeding and provide a good reference for relevant research on molecular mechanisms of color variation in peach varieties. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Phylogenetic Relationship between Two Taxa of Opuntia in Jeju Island

    제주도 부채(손바닥)선인장속(Opuntia) 두 분류군의 계통발생학적 유연관계

    Young-Soo Yang and Hong-Shik Oh

    양영수, 오홍식

    In Jeju Island, there are two different types of Opuntia cactus in cladodae, fruit, flower, flowering period and spine. There is no ... + READ MORE
    In Jeju Island, there are two different types of Opuntia cactus in cladodae, fruit, flower, flowering period and spine. There is no comparative study of these two taxa yet, so it is often seen as the same species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between the Taxa of the Opuntia monacantha Haw. and Opuntia stricta Haw. in Jeju Island. The results indicate that the two taxa were completely different from each other on the analysis of nrITS, matK and atpB-rbcL gene as well as the morphological comparison. Also, O. monacantha among the two taxa is included in the Elatae series, so South America is the origin, and O. stricta is included in the Scheerianae series, which confirms that North America is the origin. The name of the O. monacantha in Jeju Island was named 'Jeju-Baick-nyun-cho' considering geographical location conditions and symbolic characteristics. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Effects of Artificial Shading on Flowering and Growth of Maesa japonica Seedlings

    차광 처리가 빌레나무(Maesa japonica)의 개화 및 생장에 미치는 영향

    Min Ji Park, Yeon Ok Seo, Hyung Soon Choi, Byoung Ki Choi, Eun Young Im, Ju Eun Yang and Chae bin Lee

    박민지, 서연옥, 최형순, 최병기, 임은영, 양주은, 이채빈

    Maesa japonica (Thunb.) Moritzi & Zoll. is a rare evergreen shrub that occurs in west Gotjawal, Jeju island, Korea. This study was ... + READ MORE
    Maesa japonica (Thunb.) Moritzi & Zoll. is a rare evergreen shrub that occurs in west Gotjawal, Jeju island, Korea. This study was conducted to investigate effects of an artificial shading on flowering and growth characteristics of M. japonica seedlings. The level of shading had been set to be 35%, 55% and 75% using shading net. The stage of flowering and flowering ratio, seedling height, the number of leaves and stems, leaf area were measured. Flowering timings were delayed by shading. The number of flowering seedlings per plot and inflorescences per seedling were the most in 55% shading level. Tendency of decreased seedling height with increased shading level was shown. The number of leaves and stems were the fewest values in 75% shading level. The increased biomass with decreased shading level was statistically significant. Aboveground and underground biomass were 2.1 and 1.7 times higher in shading 35% than in shading 75%, respectively. Meanwhile, all seedlings in non-shading plots were dead in winter. Such might be speculated as results of the light stress. As a result, we conclude that M. japonica vitally demands the shading for growth and the optimal shading levels for growth and flowering are 35% and 55%, respectively. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Effective Techniques for Seedling Production of Amsonia ellipotica (Thumb.) Roem. & Schult.

    정향풀의 효과적인 묘 생산을 위한 육묘법

    Sang In Lee, Soo Ho Yeon, Ju-Sung Cho, Sang Young Kim, Won Woo Cho, Mi Jin Jeong and Cheol Hee Lee

    이상인, 연수호, 조주성, 김상용, 조원우, 정미진, 이철희

    Amsonia ellipotica (Thumb.) Roem. & Schult. has less than 10 native places nationwide and is evaluated as an endangered species (EN) on ... + READ MORE
    Amsonia ellipotica (Thumb.) Roem. & Schult. has less than 10 native places nationwide and is evaluated as an endangered species (EN) on the Korean Red List, so systematic breeding and cultivation methods are required. This study was carried out to establish an effective method for seedling production in A. elliopotica that can be developed as a genetic resource conservation and new ornamental material. This experiment was performed by varying the seedling production container (72, 105 and 128 cell trays), number of seeds sown in a cell (1, 2, and 4 per cell), soil type [horticultural soil and neutralized peat-moss: perlite mixed in 3:1, 4:1 (v:v)], additional fertilizer concentrations (0, 250, 500 and 1000 ㎎/L) and shading degrees (0, 55 and 75%). As a result of the study, growth increased with the increased in measuring capacity per cell of sowing container. According to number of seeding growth, sowing one seed per cell was the best. Seedling growth increased as the treatment concentrations increased, higher growth was in 1000 ㎎/L. On the other hand, during the shading treatment, growth significantly decreased regardless of shading degrees. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Characterization of Phenotypic Traits and Application of Fruit Flesh Color Marker in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Accessions

    멜론 유전자원의 생육 평가와 과육색 유전형 분석

    Ik Hyun Bae, Han Sol Kang, Woo Jin Jeong, Jae Hwang Ryu, Oh Hum Lee and Hee Chung

    배익현, 강한솔, 정우진, 유재황, 이오흠, 정희

    We aimed to generate basic breeding data for melon (Cucumis melo L.). A total of 219 melon accessions conserved at the National ... + READ MORE
    We aimed to generate basic breeding data for melon (Cucumis melo L.). A total of 219 melon accessions conserved at the National Agrobiodiversity Center (NAC) in Rural Development Administration (RDA) were used in this study, of which 72 (33%) were collected from India. The majority of accessions showed orange (42%) and white (36%) flesh color. In addition to phenotypic evaluations, the accessions were genotyped using a molecular marker for the carotenoid biosynthesis gene CmOr. DNA fragments of the expected size were amplified in 205 out of 219 accessions. Digestion of the PCR products with HinfI restriction endonuclease showed 100% concordance between phenotype and genotype in green-fleshed accessions, but 98%, 97%, and 80% concordance in orange-, white-, and creamy-fleshed accessions, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed single nucleotide changes in the three positions of SNP1, SNP2 and SNP1int in the CmOr gene among accessions. These newly found alleles suggest that there are multiple mechanisms in determining fruit flesh color in melon. Also, the phenotype data of diverse accessions obtained in this study will be a valuable source for melon breeding. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    The Correlation Analysis between Occurrence of Seedlings of Korean fir (Abies koreana E.H. Wilson) and Understory on the Eastern Slope of Mt. Halla

    한라산국립공원 동사면의 구상나무숲 내 주요 하층식물이 구상나무 유묘 발생에 미치는 상관성 분석

    Jong-Won Lee, Su-Hong Lee, WonTaek Im and Shin-Ho Kang

    이종원, 이수홍, 임원택, 강신호

    This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of seedlings of Korean fir (Abies koreana) in Korean fir forest located on ... + READ MORE
    This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of seedlings of Korean fir (Abies koreana) in Korean fir forest located on the eastern slope of Mt. Halla National Park. Between June and August in 2016, the systematic sampling method was applied to 125 plots of 5 m × 5 m quadrats and field survey was came out to measure the characteristics of sites and understory vegetation. Correlation analysis was applied to the variables quantified from the data collected. Total number of flora found at the study site is 31 in families, 44 in genera, and 56 in species. The main lower layer vegetation was investigated such as Jeju dwarf bamboo, Toothed club moss (Lycopodium serratum), Pacific fir moss (Lycopodium chinense), Climbing hydrangea (Hydrangea petiolaris) etc. Among these plant species, the vegetation which had a high positive correlation with the frequency and the coverage of seedlings of Korean fir were Jeju dwarf bamboo, Toothed club moss and Pacific fir moss. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021