• Research Article

    Immunostimulatory Activity of Hibiscus syriacus L. Leaves in Mouse Macrophages, RAW264.7 cells, and Immunosuppressed Mice
    Na Gyeong Geum, Ju Hyeong Yu, So Jung Park, Min Yeong Choi, Jae Won Lee, Gwang Hun Park, Hae-Yun Kwon, Jin Boo Jeong
    Under the COVID-19 pandemic, interest in immune enhancement is increasing. Although the immune-enhancing activity of plants of the genus Hibiscus has been … + READ MORE
    Under the COVID-19 pandemic, interest in immune enhancement is increasing. Although the immune-enhancing activity of plants of the genus Hibiscus has been reported, there is no study on the immune-enhancing activity of H. syriacus. Thus, in this study, we investigated the immune-enhancing activity of Hibiscus syriacus leaves (HSL) in mouse macrophages, RAW264.7 cells, and immunosuppressed mice. HSL increased the production of immunostimulatory factors such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and activated the phagocytosis in RAW264.7 cells. The HSL-mediated production of immunostimulatory factors was dependent on toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in RAW264.7 cells. In the immunosuppressed mouse model, HSL increased the spleen index, the levels of the cytokines, and the numbers of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes. Taken together, HSL may be considered to have immune-enhancing activity and be expected to be used as a potential immune-enhancing agent. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Research Article

    Anti-Melanogenic Activities of Ranunculus chinensis Bunge via ERK1/2-Mediated MITF Downregulation
    Min-Jin Kim, Yong Tae Jeong, Buyng Su Hwang, Yong Hwang, Dae Won Jeong, Yeong Taek Oh
    Research on whitening materials using natural alternatives is actively being conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro … + READ MORE
    Research on whitening materials using natural alternatives is actively being conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of Ranunculus chinensis Bunge (RCB) on melanogenesis and associated enzymes, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2 in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. We found that RCB extract significantly attenuated melanin synthesis and reduced the activity of intracellular tyrosinase, a rate-limiting melanogenic enzyme. Western blot analysis showed that RCB extract decreased the protein expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1. In addition, it significantly decreased the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanogenesis. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation has been reported to be involved in the inhibition of melanogenesis. Thus, we investigated whether the hypopigmentary effects of RCB extract were related to the activation of ERK. RCB extract induced ERK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it markedly inhibited body pigmentation in a zebrafish model. Our results suggest that RCB extract inhibits melanogenesis by activating ERK pathway-mediated suppression of MITF and its downstream target genes, including tyrosinase. Therefore, RCB extract can be used as a whitening agent in the development of functional cosmetics. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Research Article

    Vasodilatory Effect of Complex Saponin Extracted from Platycodon grandiflorum and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Mixture Extract
    Jung-Hwan Nam
    Platycodon grandiflorum and Glycyrrhiza uralensis contain several bioactive compounds, such as saponin, oleanolic acid, and flavone. P. grandiflorum and G. uralensis have … + READ MORE
    Platycodon grandiflorum and Glycyrrhiza uralensis contain several bioactive compounds, such as saponin, oleanolic acid, and flavone. P. grandiflorum and G. uralensis have traditionally been used to treat disorders related to blood pressure, diabetes, and counteracting poison, and they have antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties. However, the validity of complex saponin’s vasodilatory effect has not been scientifically investigated. Therefore, this study explores the vasodilatory effect of complex saponin extracted from P. grandiflorum and G. uralensis mixture extract on rabbit carotid arteries. To this end, arterial rings with intact or damaged endothelium were used in an organ bath experiment and contracted by endothelin. Complex saponins, the major active constituents of P. grandiflorum and G. uralensis mixture extract, exhibited a moderate vasodilatory effect on the rabbit’s basilar arteries. Therefore, treatment with complex saponin extracted from P. grandiflorum and G. uralensis mixture extract may selectively accelerate cerebral blood flow through basilar arterial dilation. Overall, the findings suggest that the extracted complex saponins can serve as vasodilator sources. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Research Article

    Floristic Study and Conservation Plan on Abandoned Paddy Field Type of Forest Wetlands in Korea
    Jong-Won Lee, Ho-Geun Yun, Jong-Bin An
    This study surveyed the vascular flora present in abandoned paddy field type of 237 forest wetlands in Korea to provide baseline data … + READ MORE
    This study surveyed the vascular flora present in abandoned paddy field type of 237 forest wetlands in Korea to provide baseline data for conservation, management, and monitoring and to support preparation for damage and climate change. The study period was from April 2015 to November 2021. The vascular flora of 237 forest wetlands by abandoned paddy field type were identified to consist of 128 families, 510 genera, 1,022 species, 27 subspecies, 87 varieties, 10 forma, and 1,146 taxa. 4 taxa were identified as grade II endangered wild plants, 185 taxa were identified as northern lineage plants of the Korean Peninsula, 43 taxa were endemic to the Korean Peninsula, and 58 taxa were rare plants as designated by the Korea Forest Service. Further, 296 taxa were floristic target plants and there were 86 taxa of invasive alien plants. According to wetland preference, 79 taxa (6.9%) were obligate wetland plants, 103 taxa (9.0%) were facultative wetland plants, and 61 (5.3%) taxa were facultative plants. Additionally, 66 taxa (5.8%) were facultative upland plants, and 837 taxa (73.0%) were obligate upland plants. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Research Article

    Growth and Ingredient Contents of Platycodon grandiflorum Roots under Sensor-based Soil Moisture Contents of Farmland Conditions
    Eon-Yak Kim, Ye-Jin Lee, Hye-Min Son, Young-Beob Yu, Chang-Hyu Bae
    Growth characters and ingredient contents of two-year-old bellflower (Platycodon grandiflorum) roots were investigated under both control and soil moisture treatment … + READ MORE
    Growth characters and ingredient contents of two-year-old bellflower (Platycodon grandiflorum) roots were investigated under both control and soil moisture treatment condition using soil moisture control system including soil sensing and automatic water supply chain in this study. Root diameter, fine root number, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of the plant were significantly influenced by the automatic water treatment, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, respectively. Ingredient contents of the two-year-old roots in bellflower plants were detected in the 20% and 50% of controlled soil moisture content. Contents of amino acids were decreased by the soil moisture treatment, meanwhile, contents of minerals were not showed significant decrease except for phosphorus content. Showing no difference in proline and tyrosine, fourteen of the amino acid contents were gradually decreased by the increased soil moisture contents, with significant decrease in serine, glycine, alanine, leucine, lysine and histidine at 20% treatment. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Research Article

    In vitro Root Induction from Shoot Explants of Pear (Pyrus spp.)
    Jae-Young Song, Jinjoo Bae, Woohyung Lee, Jung-Ro Lee, Mun-Sup Yoon
    The main objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate condition for root formation of in vitro micropropagated pear ( … + READ MORE
    The main objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate condition for root formation of in vitro micropropagated pear (Pyrus spp.) plants. In vitro propagation was induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2.0 ㎎/L of N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.2 ㎎/L of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) medium. The short pre-treatment of explants with a high concentration (1 ㎎/L) of NAA and IBA (R0 medium) in dark for three days, followed by transfer to five different media (R1 to R5) resulted in good rooting responses in the pear ‘Oharabani (P. pyrifolia × P. communis)’ genotype. For the rooting experiments, the highest rooting percentage (83.3 ± 8.3%), average root length (3.6 ± 1.9 mm), total root number (31 ± 4.0), and average root number per plant (2.6 ± 2.1) were obtained on half strength (1/2) of MS medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose without hormones and activated charcoal (AC) (R1 medium). The highest rooting percentage was obtained at 83.3% from explants on R1 and R3 media. The rooting procedure described in this study resulted in good root formation and significantly shorting the root induction time to within 14 days of culture. Further studies are underway to test the suitability of the protocol developed in this study for other pear genotypes. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Research Article

    Improvement of the Quality of Dried Wild Vegetables by Micro Oil Sprayed Thermal Air Technique
    Yonghyun Kim, Yunmi Park, Chul-Woo Kim, Uk Lee, Hyun Ji Eo
    Wild vegetables, such as Cirsium setidens, and Aster scaber, are commonly distributed as dried materials because the wild vegetables lose … + READ MORE
    Wild vegetables, such as Cirsium setidens, and Aster scaber, are commonly distributed as dried materials because the wild vegetables lose their freshness quickly after harvest and distribution. Dried wild vegetables require rehydration to use as a food ingredient, and the quality of rehydrated wild vegetables is affected by pre-drying and drying methods. Here, we introduce the newly developed pre-drying and drying method, termed “micro oil sprayed thermal air (MOTA) technique”. The three wild vegetables processed by the MOTA technique showed improved rehydration rate and reduced time to achieve maximum rehydration rate. Color characteristics were also improved in C. setidens. These results indicate that the MOTA technique improves the overall quality of rehydrated wild vegetables. It is expected that our findings could enhance the marketability of dried wild vegetables by improving overall quality and reducing preparation time. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Research Article

    Identification of Adaptive Traits Facilitating the Mechanized Harvesting of Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis)
    Xiaohan Wang, Yu-Mi Choi, Sukyeung Lee, Myoung-Jae Shin, Jung Yoon Yi, Taye Desta Kebede, Hyemyeong Yoon
    Traditional germplasms are unsuitable for mechanized production, limiting adzuki bean production. The creation of cultivars that can be harvested by mechanized means … + READ MORE
    Traditional germplasms are unsuitable for mechanized production, limiting adzuki bean production. The creation of cultivars that can be harvested by mechanized means is an urgent task for breeders. The bottom pod height (BPH), lodging resistance, and synchronous maturing of adzuki beans are critical factors for the reduction of losses due to mechanized harvesting. In this study, 14 traits of 806 adzuki bean accessions were analyzed. All growth stages and the yield, lodging score, and synchronous maturing correlated negatively with the BPH. These negative correlations reflect the increased difficulty of breeding to simultaneously satisfy the needs for no lodging, high synchronous maturing rates, BPHs > 10 ㎝, and high yield. We screened three germplasms with no lodging, high synchronous maturing rates, and BPHs > 10 ㎝ that were used as mechanization-adapted breeding material for crossing with high-yield cultivars. Agronomic trait diversity in adzuki beans was also examined in this study. Principal component and cluster analyses were conducted for 806 germplasms resulting in three clusters with the yield and three growth stage traits serving as the main discriminating factors. Cluster 1 included high-yield germplasms with the number of pods per plant and the number of seeds per pod being the major discriminant factors. Cluster 2 included germplasms with long growth periods and large 100-seed weights while cluster 3 contained germplasms with high BPHs. In general, the characteristics that make mechanical harvesting feasible and those assessed in this study could be utilized to choose and enhance adzuki beans production. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Research Article

    Dormancy-breaking and Germination of Chelidonium majus L. subsp. asiaticum H. Hara Seeds by Stratification and Gibberellins
    Boran Ji, Hayan Lee, Kyungtae Park, Sang Yeob Lee, Bo-Kook Jang, In Hwan Chae, Chung Youl Park, Sung Pil Kwon, Deug-Chan Lee, Ju-Sung Cho
    The demand for Chelidonium majus L. subsp. asiaticum H. Hara is expected to increase due to its pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, … + READ MORE
    The demand for Chelidonium majus L. subsp. asiaticum H. Hara is expected to increase due to its pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, an effective propagation system for this species has not yet been established. This study was conducted to analyze the seed dormancy and germination characteristics of C. majus L. subsp. asiaticum H. Hara native to Korea and establish a mass propagation system. The dormancy type was primarily classified by analyzing the general information of the collected seeds. The seed dormancy breaking was investigated by comparing the effects of cold stratification (0, 2, 4, 8, 10, or 12 weeks) with warm stratification (S, summer temperature, 25/15°C) and intermediate temperature stratification (A, autumn temperature, 15/10°C) of alternating temperature stratification (S12-A4 or S12-A8 weeks). After dormancy break, 500 ㎎/L GA3 and GA4+7 treatment replaced cold stratification and improved seed germination. The results of this study are expected to provide basic data for future seed propagation and mass propagation by analyzing the dormancy and germination characteristics of C. majus L. subsp. asiaticum H. Hara seeds. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Research Article

    Morphological Characteristics and Systematics Analysis of a New Forma of Opuntia monacantha (Willd.) Haw. f. jejuensis J. K. Kim ex Y. S. Yang from Jeju Island, Korea
    Young-Soo Yang, Byoung-Ki Choi, Hong-Shik Oh
    The taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationship of Opuntia monacantha Haw. f. jejuensis J. K. Kim ex Y. S. Yang (Jejubaiknyuncho), which is … + READ MORE
    The taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationship of Opuntia monacantha Haw. f. jejuensis J. K. Kim ex Y. S. Yang (Jejubaiknyuncho), which is native to southern coast of Jeju Island, Korea was analyzed using DNA markers obtained from Korean Opuntia. Opuntia stricta Haw., O. humifusa Raf., and O. humifusa Raf. f. jeollaensis E. J. Kim and S. S. Whang, native or cultivated in Korea, have no stripes on the back of tepals and have a purple pulp, whereas O. monacantha f. jejuensis has purple stripes on the back of tepals and a greenish-yellow pulp color. Opuntia monacantha has purple stripes on both the front and back of its tepals, whereas stripes appear only on the back of tepals of O. monacantha f. jejuensis. Opuntia monacantha f. jejuensis was assigned to Elatae series in phylogenetic analysis and was found to be more closely related to O. monacantha subsp. arechavaletae (Speg.) Guiggi, compared with O. monacantha at a molecular level. Based on its phylogenetic and morphological differences from O. monacantha and O. monacantha subsp. arechavaletae, which are native or have been cultivated in Jeju areas, O. monacantha f. jejuensis was named as a new forma in this study. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Review

    Kenaf Is the Key to Go Green in the Era of Environmental Crisis: A Review
    In-Sok Lee, Yu-Rim Choi, Ju Kim
    Ecologically sustainable means of development is the point to support environmental homeostasis. One of our roles is to find bio-degradable resources that … + READ MORE
    Ecologically sustainable means of development is the point to support environmental homeostasis. One of our roles is to find bio-degradable resources that can be substituted for petroleum-based products to effectively abide by the natural viability. To counter the issues of deforestation and preserve biodiversity, it is necessary to produce a non-wood crop that can fulfill the requirement for raw material from which several products can be produced. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), a member of the family Malvaceae, is showing sufficient potentiality along this road-map. Due to its rich fiber content, it has been used extensively in various fields for long, probably as early as 4,000 BC. At present, kenaf has been used as provider of paper, plastics, fiber glass, biofuel, activated carbon and epoxy composite. This obviously catch one’s attention towards its capability to replace petroleum-based products as a whole. Moreover, the plant shows considerable relevance in decreasing pollutants by virtue of its enormous absorption capacity. These multiple applications of kenaf justify its credibility to be the best resource for the better world. The paper presents an overview on its numerous uses reported in the literature that we have investigated and its great potential as a valuable multipurpose crop. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022
  • Data

    Breeding of New Ever-bearing Strawberry “Doha” Variety
    Jong Nam Lee, Jong Taek Suh, Su Jeong Kim, Hwang Bae Sohn, Do Yeon Kim, Jung Hwan Nam
    “Doha” is a new strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) variety, which was released by the Highland Agriculture Research Institute in 2021. … + READ MORE
    “Doha” is a new strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) variety, which was released by the Highland Agriculture Research Institute in 2021. The “Doha” variety originates from a 2014 cross between “Saebong No. 3” and “Yeolha,” both of which exhibited excellent ever-bearing characteristics, including continuous flowering and large fruits under long-day and high temperature conditions. This new cultivar was initially named “Saebong No. 13” after examining its characteristics and productivity during summer cultivation between 2015 and 2018. After regional adaptability tests, “Doha” was selected from “Saebong No. 13” as an elite cultivar. The general characteristics of “Doha” include spreading, elliptic leaves, and strong growth. The fruits are long and conical and of a red color. The plant height of “Doha” was similar to that of “Goha,” but the number of leaves was lower. The number of flower clusters of “Doha” was 8.6, which was 2.8 fewer than that of the control variety, “Goha,” with 11.4. The average fruit weight of “Doha” was 13.9 g, which was 4.9 g heavier than that of “Goha.” The fruit hardness of “Doha” was 35.5 g·㎜−2, which was 9.4 g·㎜−2 harder than that of “Goha.” The marketable yield of “Doha” was 26,971 ㎏·㏊−1, 125% more than that of “Goha” with 21,479 ㎏·㏊−1. The findings of this study suggest that “Doha” is a hard fruit and high-yielding variety of ever-bearing strawberries that could increase farming income when distributing to farmers. - COLLAPSE
    30 December 2022