• The Regulatory Effect of Angelica gigas Nakai on Immune Enhancement and Cytokine Production in vivo and in vitro

    참당귀(Angelica gigas Nakai)의 체력증진 및 면역조절효과

    Yong-Deok Jeon, Su-Jin Kim

    전용덕, 김수진

    Natural products are important sources for drug development because they have a wide variety of useful biological properties. Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) … + READ MORE
    Natural products are important sources for drug development because they have a wide variety of useful biological properties. Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) has been used as an herbal medicine for treatment of colds, pain, and anemia. The present study was designed to evaluate the regulatory effect of AGN on immune enhancement in vivo and in vitro. To investigate the immune-enhancing effect of AGN, we used forced swimming test (FST) experimental model. Mice were orally administered by AGN or distilled water for 14 days and then immobility time and biological parameters in serum were measured. The results showed that immobility time in AGN treatment group was significantly reduced in comparison with the control group. Plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen and lactate dehydrogenase in AGN group was significantly decreased compared with control group. Additionally, we showed that AGN treatment significantly increased immune-related cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-2, and interferon (IFN)- levels in Molt-4 cells. Collectively, the findings provide experimental evidence that AGN may be effective in improving immune function. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Immunostimulatory and Anti-Obesity Activity of Lonicera insularis Nakai Extracts in Mouse Macrophages RAW264.7 Cells and Mouse Adipocytes 3T3-L1 Cells

    섬괴불나무(Lonicera insularis Nakai) 추출물의 면역자극 및 항비만 활성

    Yu Ju Hyeong, Joo Ho Yeo, Min Yeong Choi, Jae Won Lee, Na Gyeong Geum, Mi-Yun An, Jin Boo Jeong

    유주형, 여주호, 최민영, 이재원, 금나경, 안미연, 정진부

    In this study, we investigated in vitro immuno-stimulatory and anti-obesity activity of fruit (LIF), leaves (LIL) and stems (LIS) from Lonicera insularis … + READ MORE
    In this study, we investigated in vitro immuno-stimulatory and anti-obesity activity of fruit (LIF), leaves (LIL) and stems (LIS) from Lonicera insularis Nakai in mouse macrophages RAW264.7 cells and mouse pre-adipocytes 3T3-L1 cells. LIF, LIL and LIS increased the production of immunostimulatory factors such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and activated phagocytosis in RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) partly blocked LIF, LIL and LIS mediated production of immunostimulatory factors. In addition, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling attenuated the production of immunostimulatory factors induced by LIF, LIL and LIS. Based on these results of this study, LIF, LIL and LIS is thought to activate macrophages the production of immunostimulatory factors and phagocytosis through toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) and MAPKs signaling pathway. In anti-obesity study, LIF reduced the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. LIF increased the protein phosphorylation expressions such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) related to the lipolysis of the adipocytes. In addition, LIF increased the expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism and brown adipose tissues differentiation such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coativator 1α (PGC-1α) and PR domain-containing16 (PRDM16). These results suggest that LIF is involved in lipid accumulation inhibition through expressing the proteins such as lipolysis and differentiation of white adipocytes to brown adipocytes. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Changes of Microorganisms and Active Compounds in Glycyrrhizae Radix as Affected by Drying Method and Gamma Ray Treatments

    건조 방법 및 감마선 조사에 따른 감초의 미생물 저감효과 및 유효성분 변화

    Kim, Joon-Hee1, Kang, Byoung-Man2, Kim, Jun Yong1, Kim, Ryu-Dam1, Hwang, Hyun Chul1 and Lee, Jae-Woong3*

    김준희, 강병만, 김준용, 김류담, 황현철, 이재웅

    Glycyrrhizae Radix is an herbal medicine vulnerable to fungi. So there are regulations on mycotoxins. Therefore, in this study, the affect of … + READ MORE
    Glycyrrhizae Radix is an herbal medicine vulnerable to fungi. So there are regulations on mycotoxins. Therefore, in this study, the affect of various drying methods and additional gamma irradiation (10 kGy) was studied to suppress the microbial generation of Glycyrrhizae Radix. As a result of detecting and comparing microorganisms using the dry film method for samples prepared by each of natural, hot air, freezing, microwave drying and gamma irradiation, the affect of reducing microorganisms by microwave drying and gamma irradiation was confirmed. There was no statistically significant change in the content of the active compounds between the treatment groups. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Mass Proliferation of Hibiscus hamabo Adventitious Root in an Air-lift Bioreactor, and the Antioxidant and Whitening Activity of the Extract

    생물반응기를 이용한 황근 부정근의 대량증식과 추출물의 항산화 및 미백 활성 평가

    Lee, Jong-Du1, Hyun, Ho Bong1, Hyeon, Hyejin1, Jang, Eunbi1, Ko, Min-Hee1, Yoon, Weon-Jong2, Ham, Young Min2, Jung, Yong-Hwan3, Choi, Hwon4, O, Eu Gene5 and Oh, Daeju6*

    이종두, 현호봉, 현혜진, 장은비, 고민희, 윤원종, 함영민, 정용환, 최훤, 오유진, 오대주

    Hibiscus hamabo Sieb. et Zucc. (yellow hibiscus) is a deciduous semi-shrub plant and mainly growing in Jeju Island. This is known the … + READ MORE
    Hibiscus hamabo Sieb. et Zucc. (yellow hibiscus) is a deciduous semi-shrub plant and mainly growing in Jeju Island. This is known the unique wild hibiscus genus and classified as an 2nd grade of endangered plant for Korean Red List. In previous studies, properties of germination, ecological, genetical and salt resistance have been reported. In this study, we investigated mass-proliferated adventitious root using bioreactor, antioxidant and whitening effects to conduct functional ingredients. Yellow hibiscus were collected from Gujwa, Jeju by prior permission and they were introduced by explant type and various medium composition after surface sterilization. As a result, seed response rates were evaluated at range of 51.17 ~51.83%, in terms of comprehensive efficiency of shoot and root formation. In the case of adventitious root propagation condition was confirmed in half strength Murashige and Skoog medium salts, 30 ㎎/L sucrose, and 2 ㎎/L indole-3-butyric acid for 8 weeks in 5,000 mL bioreactor. We also compared between relationship with biomass and secondary metabolites accumulation by total phenolics content, the flavonoid content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and melanin content. The results indicated that adventitious root mass proliferation, antioxidant and whitening effect could develop value of the high-quality cosmeceutical ingredient and further metabolite studies. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Analysis of Growth Characteristics and Major Components of Angelica gigas Root under Flower Colors

    참당귀 꽃 색에 따른 생육특성 및 뿌리의 주성분 함량 분석

    Dae Hui Jeong, Yeong Bae Yun, Jeong Hoon Huh, Hong Woo Park, Yurry Um, Chung Ryul Jung, Eung Jun Park

    정대희, 윤영배, 허정훈, 박홍우, 엄유리, 정충렬, 박응준

    The aim of this study was to provide basic data for breeding new varieties of Angelica gigas Nakai by identifying the growth … + READ MORE
    The aim of this study was to provide basic data for breeding new varieties of Angelica gigas Nakai by identifying the growth characteristics and useful components of its below- and above-ground parts. The basic varieties expressing dark purple (N79-A), light blue-pink (62-C), and white (NN115-C) flowers were identified and collected in the cultivation area, and their seeds were cultured for use as experimental materials. Qualitative growth characteristics of the above-ground parts were then examined. Purple coloration was evident throughout the entire plant body in the N79-A group, whereas the 62-C and NN115-C groups displayed yellow-green coloration. In terms of quantitative growth characteristics, the 62-C group displayed significantly lower above- and below-ground growth than the other two groups. Levels of nodakenin and decursinol-angelate were high in the NN115-C group (0.88 ± 0.13%) and N79-A group (2.56 ± 0.12%). However, the overall results were not statistically significant. The results could provide a foundation for breeding new varieties of Angelica gigas Nakai, which are used predominantly for medicinal purposes and have low bolting and high yield potential. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Effects of Freeze Drying, Room-temperature Drying, and Room-temperature Drying after Roasting on Volatile Compounds Sugar Content, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Activity of Hallabong (Citrus sphaerocarpa Tanka nom. nud.) Peel Tea

    동결건조, 상온 건조, 볶음 후 상온 건조가 한라봉(Citrus sphaerocarpa Tanka nom. nud.) 과피차의 향기 성분과 당도 및 플라보노이드, 항산화 활성에 미치는 영향

    Min-Gyeong Kim, Min-Ju Kwon, Kang-Mo Ku

    김민경, 권민주, 구강모

    The effects of freeze-drying (FD), room-temperature drying (RD), and room-temperature drying after roasting (RDAR) on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sugar content, … + READ MORE
    The effects of freeze-drying (FD), room-temperature drying (RD), and room-temperature drying after roasting (RDAR) on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sugar content, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of Hallabong peel tea were tested. This experiment was conducted to collect a basic information for developing of peel tea. FD samples showed lower total soluble solids and VOCs than other drying treatments. RDAR samples showed a significant difference in VOCs and visual color of FD samples. The reduced VOCs in FD samples was caused by freeze drying treatment; identical VOCs composition of hallabong peel was detected from condensed ice of freeze-drying machine. Metabolomics analysis showed no difference among three drying treatments. In addition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds were not significantly different from three different drying treatments. Thus, RD or RDAR is a suitable drying method for hallabong peel tea rather than FD method in terms of VOCs and economical reasons. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Morphological Characteristics Based on Phenotypes of Flower and Fruit in a New Variety of Anthoxylum schinifolium

    산초나무(Zanthoxylum schinifolium) 신품종의 꽃과 열매에 기반한 형태적 특성 분석

    An, Mi Yun1*, Song, Hyun Jin2, Kim, Ki Yoon2, Lee, Ro Young2, Yang, Byeong Hoon3 and Han, Chi Beok4

    안미연, 송현진, 김기윤, 이로영, 양병훈, 한치복

    In this study, the morphological characteristics of flower and fruit in five varieties (Hancho 915ho, 930ho, 10ho, 1020ho, 1030ho) from Zanthoxylum schinifolium … + READ MORE
    In this study, the morphological characteristics of flower and fruit in five varieties (Hancho 915ho, 930ho, 10ho, 1020ho, 1030ho) from Zanthoxylum schinifolium were investigated as new varieties with different fruiting seasons. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics were investigated, spectively. For quantitative characteristics can be measured numerically, such as size and number, the varieties were identified using ANOVA and Scheffe's multiple range test. In addition, the validity of whether the quantitative characteristics of five varieties can be explained by factor analysis was reviewed. Using UPGMA, the relationship between the five varieties was confirmed by dendrogram. As a result of ANOVA and Scheffe's multiple range test there was significant difference in inflorescence width and female flower length. It had a high contribution to distinguishing varieties, which was similar to the PCA results using factor analysis. As a result of dendrogram using cluster analysis, Hancho 915ho, 1020ho and 1030ho were similar, but there was a distinct difference in the characteristics of different flowering and fruiting periods, confirming that they were different varieties. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • A Study on the Improvement of Types and Grades of Forest Wetland through Correlation Analysis of Forest Wetland Evaluation Factors and Types

    산림습원 가치평가 요소와 유형 및 등급의 상관성 분석을 통한 산림습원 유형 구분 및 등급의 개선 방안 연구

    Jong-Won Lee, Ho-Geun Yun, Kyu Song Lee, Jong Bin An

    이종원, 윤호근, 이규송, 안종빈

    This study was carried out on 455 forest wetlands of south Korea for which an inventory was established through value evaluation and … + READ MORE
    This study was carried out on 455 forest wetlands of south Korea for which an inventory was established through value evaluation and grade. Correlation analysis was conducted to find out the correlation between the types and grades of forest wetlands and 23 evaluation factors in four categories: vegetation and landscape, material circulation and hydraulics・hydrology, humanities and social landscape, and disturbance level. Through the improvement of types and grades of forest wetlands, it is possible to secure basic data that can be used in setting up conservation measures by preparing standards necessary for future forest wetland conservation and restoration, and to found a systematic monitoring system. First, between the type of forest wetland and size and accessibility showed a positive correlation, but the remaining items were analyzed to have negative or no correlation. In particular, it was found that there was no negative correlation or no correlation with the grades of forest wetland. Moreover, it was found that there was a very strong negative correlation with the weighted four category items. Thus, it is judged that improvement is necessary because there is an error in the weight or adjust the evaluation criteria of the value evaluation item, add an item that can increase objectivity. Especially, in the case of forest wetlands, the ecosystem service function due to biodiversity is the largest, so evaluation items should be improved in consideration of this. Therefore, it can be divided into five categories: uniqueness and rarity (15%), wildlife habitat (15%), vegetation and landscape (35%), material cycle・hydraulic hydrology (30%), and humanities and social landscape (5%). It will be possible to propose weights that can increase effectiveness. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Plant Regeneration via Adventitious Shoot Formation from Hypocotyl Explants of Groundcherry (Physalis angulata L.)

    땅꽈리(Physalis angulata L.) 하배축 절편으로부터 신초 형성을 통한 식물체 재분화

    Seok Chan Koh

    고석찬

    In the present study, plant regeneration through adventitious shoot formation from hypocotyl segments of in vitro seedlings of groundcherry (Physalis angulata … + READ MORE
    In the present study, plant regeneration through adventitious shoot formation from hypocotyl segments of in vitro seedlings of groundcherry (Physalis angulata L.) was investigated to determine the optimum culture conditions for highly efficient regeneration of the species. Adventitious shoots in hypocotyl segments were efficiently induced on MS media with low concentrations of BAP, specifically, with 0.5–1.0 ㎎/L BAP singly or in combination with 0.1–0.5 ㎎/L NAA. The 1.0 ㎎/L BAP single treatment was most effective for forming multiple adventitious shoots. When the induced shoots were transferred to the root induction media, low concentrations of NAA, IBA, and IAA enhanced the development of adventitious roots from adventitious shoots, suggesting that low concentrations of auxins were optimal for producing regenerated plantlets. The number of roots per shoot was large (> 2.0), and the root length exceeded 8.0 ㎝. In particular, the development and the overall shape of the roots were ideal. Furthermore, the number and length of shoots exceeded 2 and 6.0 ㎝, respectively. When the regenerated plantlets were transferred to compost soil, the root and shoot systems had developed well to the point that all of the regenerated plantlets acclimated successfully, resulting in normal morphology and growth characteristics, similar to those of the mother plant. Therefore, plant regeneration via adventitious shoot formation is expected to be one of the main methods for producing groundcherry on a large scale for a stable supply of the raw materials. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Plantlet Regeneration and PLBs Propagation of Bulbophyllum auricomum Lindl.
    Win, Theingi Aung1**, Thang, Tung Lian2, Zaw, Phyo Aung3, Bang, Keuk Soo14** and Baek, Seung Hwa5*
    Bulbophyllum auricomum Lindl. is very popular among orchid growers due to the attractive fragrance of its flowers and has become an endangered … + READ MORE
    Bulbophyllum auricomum Lindl. is very popular among orchid growers due to the attractive fragrance of its flowers and has become an endangered orchid in Myanmar. In this study, we carried out an aseptic technique that can be used to conserve this endangered orchid species. The seeds of B. auricomum Lindl. were obtained from artificial pollination and cultured in MS basal medium for seed germination. The effect of coconut water and BAP in MS basal medium on callus induction was investigated. The highest callus induction was found at 2.0 ㎎/L BAP. The maximum growth of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) was evaluated, and the best response was observed on MS medium supplemented with 150 mL/L coconut water at pH 5.6. MS basal medium supplemented with 150 mL/L coconut water along with 2.0 ㎎/L BAP and 1.0 ㎎/L NAA (MCBN) showed the highest number of plantlets at 15℃ at the second week of culture. At the second and third week of culture, MS medium supplemented with 2.0 ㎎/L BAP and 1.0 ㎎/L NAA (MBN) showed the best result in terms of the number of leaves and the longest leaves at 15℃ and 25℃, respectively. The present study showed evidence of successful in vitro propagation of B. auricomum Lindl. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Composition, Ecology and Conservation of the Andong Serpentine Flora, South Korea

    안동 사문암 지역의 식물상과 생태와 보전

    Jeong Seok Park, Yun Ha Kim, Hee Jung Nam, Byeongcheol Eom, Gyeong-Yeon Lee, Jong Won Kim

    박정석, 김윤하, 남희정, 엄병철, 이경연, 김종원

    The ultramafic serpentine area, the small size of 3 ㎢, remains in Andong, South Korea. We researched the ecological flora and its … + READ MORE
    The ultramafic serpentine area, the small size of 3 ㎢, remains in Andong, South Korea. We researched the ecological flora and its structure through the 12 times field investigations from 2013 till 2018. A total of 527 taxa including the previously recorded species-list was analyzed. Among them, 331 taxa were filed up as a real flora of the serpentine area. On the vegetation land-cover map describing a characteristic aspect of species distribution, a matrix of the sparse forest by Pinus densiflora and the grassland patches were the main landscape. The study area was acknowledged as a home for the ethnobotanical species and grassland components, and clearly distinctive from the non-serpentine area. The original habitat was too deteriorated by introducing the non-site soils and exotic plants. Conclusionally a designation of a protected area and the long-term ecological monitoring were requested. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022
  • Floristic Study of Namhansanseong (Gwangju-si, Gyeonggi-do) in Korea

    남한산성(경기도 광주시)의 관속식물상

    Seog Woo Kwon, Jung-Hyun Kim, Tae-Sung Kim, Sung-Ae Park, Chang-Young Yoon

    권석우, 김중현, 김태성, 박성애, 윤창영

    This study aimed to elucidate the distribution of vascular plants in Namhansanseong (Gwangju-si, Gyeonggi-do), Korea. The results of 30 field surveys from … + READ MORE
    This study aimed to elucidate the distribution of vascular plants in Namhansanseong (Gwangju-si, Gyeonggi-do), Korea. The results of 30 field surveys from June 2019 to June 2020 identified 568 total taxa, representing 513 species, 10 subspecies, 40 varieties, 3 forms, and 2 hybrids in 335 genera and 107 families. Among them, 17 taxa were endemic plants to Korea, and one taxon were endangered plant and three taxa were red list plants. The floristic target plants amounted to 63 taxa, specifically one taxon of grade V, seven taxa of grade IV, 12 taxa of grade III, 14 taxa of grade II, and 29 taxa of grade I. And 66 taxa were northern lineage plants. Alien plants were recorded a total of 61 taxa with a Naturalized Index of 10.7%, the Urbanization Index was calculated to be 9.8%. As the result of comparison with previous studies, in this study a total of 213 taxa were newly identified representing 187 species, three subspecies, 19 varieties, one form, and two hybrids in 161 genera and 66 families. - COLLAPSE
    1 August 2022